SOCIAL CHANGESocial movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of individualsor organizationsfocused on specific politicalor socialissues, in other words, on carrying out, resisting or undoing a social change.Modern Western social movements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of literature), and increased mobility of labor due to the industrializationand urbanizationof 19th century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression, education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western cultureis responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. However others point out that many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mauin Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Either way, social movements have been and continued to be closely connected with democraticpolitical systems. Occasionally social movements have been involved in democratizingnations, but more often they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a popular and global expression of dissent.Modern movements often utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements.Political scienceand sociologyhave developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political partiesas well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda settingand influence on politics.DefinitionCharles Tillydefines social movements as a series of contentious performances, displays and campaigns by which ordinary people made collective claims on others . For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics. He argues that there are three major elements to a social movement:Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities; Repertoire (repertoire of contention): employment of combinations from among the following forms of political action: creation of special-purpose associations and coalitions, public meetings, solemn processions, vigils, rallies, demonstrations, petition drives, statements to and in public media, and pamphleteering; and WUNC displays: participants' concerted public representation of worthiness, unity, numbers, and commitments on the part of themselves and/or their constituencies. Sidney Tarrowdefines a social movement as collective challenges [to elites, authorities, other groups or cultural codes] by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities. He specifically distinguishessocial movements from political parties and advocacy groups.