This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Hist 259 Professor Hyams 9/23/08 Church Policies as Influential Factors on Urbans Call for Crusade On the 27 th of august in 1095, Pope Urban II spoke before a crowd of clergy and laymen alike in a field outside of Clermont and uttered a series of words which historians have designated as a call for the first Crusade. In part of this speech, as conveyed to us by Fulcher of Chartres, Urban was said to have stated that Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace among yourselves and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an important work for you to do. 1 In saying this, Urban was trying to equate an important church project of the time, the Peace of God, with the Crusades. The situation of the Church from the time that Pope Urban II was coroneted to the Council of Clermont provided him with explicit reasons for, along with the implicit abilities to, call for a Crusade against the Muslims. The political gains, military security, and religious devotion to the Church that the Pope sought to acquire in his proposition of Crusade stemmed from three major conflicts the Church faced during Urbans rule: the Investiture Controversy, Gregorian Reform, and the Peace of God. Furthermore, Urbans partaking in these endeavors provided him with a sort of legitimacy that allowed him to call on the lords of Western Europe to undertake this great campaign. 1 Paul Halsall, Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, according to Fulcher of Chartres, Medieval Sourcebook, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-fulcher.html Probably the most volatile problem that the Church faced as Urban came into power also happened to be one of the most apparent for the new Pope. The simple fact that the papal reign of Urban II did not begin in Rome greatly exemplifies the magnitude of the Investiture Controversy during the late eleventh century. The causes of this conflict can be found in the reforms made by Urbans predecessor Pope Gregory VII (The short reign of Victor III being discounted). Gregory greatly disliked the notion of lay investiture in which lay rulers could give out church positions or regions as if they were political entities. In the eyes of Gregory, the most heinous example of this was the influence of The Holy Roman Empire over Papal elections, a process known as Caesaropapism....
View Full Document