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Chapter 13 Solutions.pdf - Chapter 13 Redox Reactions...

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492Unit 7 Solutions ManualCopyright © 2007 Thomson NelsonChapter 13 Redox ReactionsStarting Points(Page 556)[Students’ answers will reflect their understanding at this point. There are no “correct” or“incorrect” answers. Students will revisit their answers at the end of the chapter.]Exploration: Cleaning Silver(Page 557)(a) The surface of the tarnished silver fork is completely discoloured, and dull. There are darkerblotches in some areas. The aluminium foil is shiny, bright, and lustrous on one side andslightly dull on the other side.Observations:ƔThe fork became lighter in appearance almost immediately and had some small bubbleson the surface.ƔMany small bubbles were continuously forming on the aluminium foil and rising to thesurface. At the same time, the foil was becoming noticeably darker in places.ƔThere was a slight rotten-egg smell above the surface.ƔOnly the parts of the fork immersed in the solution were affected.(b) The fork was much lighter in appearance overall, and some areas (particularly on the flatsurfaces) appeared shiny and silvery. The aluminium foil had many dark brown patches onboth sides.(c) 3 Ag2S(s) + 2 Al(s)oAl2S3(s) + 6 Ag(s)This chemical equation can explain only part of the observations (the cleaning of the fork andthe tarnishing of the foil). The formation of a gas and the slight odour suggest that there maybe other reactions occurring.(d) This technological process appears promising, but requires further research and development.The heavily tarnished silver object was not completely restored in this one treatment. Someadditional trial-and-error problem solving is required to test other reaction conditions. Theprocess is certainly simple, economical, and efficient. It just needs to be more effective.13.1 OXIDATION AND REDUCTIONPractice(Page 559)1.(a) Reduction was used to describe a reaction that produced a metal from its naturallyoccurring compound.(b) Oxidation was used to describe reactions of substances such as metals or fuels withoxygen.(c) An oxidizing agent is a substance that causes or promotes the oxidation of a metal toproduce a metal compound.(d) A reducing agent is a substance that causes or promotes the reduction of a metalcompound, down to a metal.(e) Metallurgy is the science and technology of extracting metals from their naturallyoccurring compounds and adapting these metals for useful purposes.(f) Corrosion is the spontaneous reaction of metals with air and other chemicals in theenvironment, to form metal compounds such as oxides, carbonates, or sulfides.
Copyright © 2007 Thomson NelsonUnit 7 Solutions Manual4932.(a) oxidation of iron; oxygen is the oxidizing agent(b) reduction of lead(II) oxide; carbon is the reducing agent(c) reduction of nickel(II) oxide; hydrogen is the reducing agent(d) oxidation of tin; bromine is the oxidizing agent(e) reduction of iron(III) oxide; carbon monoxide is the reducing agent(f) oxidation of copper; nitric acid is the oxidizing agent3.Three reducing agents used in metallurgy are carbon, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen.

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