1 The Making of Radical Reconstruction A. Andrew Johnson Johnson identified himself as the champion of the “honest yeomen” and a foe of large planters. Johnson lacked Lincoln’s political skills and keen sense of public opinion. Johnson believed that African-Americans had no role to play in Reconstruction. B. The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction offered pardons to the white southern elite. C. The Black Codes Southern governments began passing new laws that restricted the freedom of blacks. These new laws violated free labor principles and called forth a vigorous response from the Republican North. D. The Radical Republicans Radical Republicans called for the dissolution of Johnson’s state governments, the establishment of new governments that did not have “rebels” in power, and the guarantee of the right to vote for black men. The Radicals fully embraced the expanded powers of the federal government born of the Civil War. o Charles Summer o Thaddeus Stevens Thaddeus Stevens’s most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South. o His plan was too radical for most others in Congress. E. The Origins of Civil Rights Most Republicans were moderates, not radicals. Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois proposed two bills to modify Johnson’s policy: o Extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau o Civil Rights Bill (equality before the law was central; it sought to overturn the Black Codes) Johnson vetoed both bills.
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