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Unformatted text preview: Philo 201 Lecture 6 9/18/07: Socrates, Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, p. 1 Philo 201, Class 6, Sept 18, 2007 * Socrates: Continued * Plato: Interpretive Parameters * Plato’s Euthyphro * Plato’s Apology of Socrates Socrates ancient sources *Plato *Xenophon *Aristophanes Clouds *Aristotle *Fragments of comic poets Aristotle on Socrates *“In the time of Socrates, progress was made in defining the essence and entity, but investigation into nature went out of fashion, and philosophers turned to useful virtues and politics” ( Parts of Animals 642a29) Aristotle on Socrates *“Socrates, disregarding the physical universe and confining his study to moral questions, sought here for the universal and was the first to concentrate on definitions; Plato followed him and assumed that the problem of definition is concerned not with any sensible thing but with entities of another kind.” Metaph . 987b1 Socrates: the Historical Question *Myth: Gigon *History: Taylor, Burnet, Guthrie *Brickhouse & Smith *I. F. Stone *Dramatic interpretation? Socratic issues *Method of refutation (elenchus) *Socratic ignorance * Gnothe seauton *Attitude toward sex and love *Divine sign (daimonion) *Virtue is knowledge, vice is ignorance, wrongdoing is involuntary Socratics *Megarians: logical paradoxes, skepticism *Cynics: Antisthenes, Cratylus *Diogenes of Sinope (413-327), Crates, Zeno of Citium (founder of Stoicism) *Cyrenaics: Aristippus, Arete, Aristippus II, Aethiops, et al. *Aeschines, Phaedo, Menedemus, et al. Philo 201 Lecture 6 9/18/07: Socrates, Plato, Euthyphro, Apology, p. 2 Kierkegaard on Socrates *“Socrates was fortunate in having been misunderstood in so many different ways” The Concept of Irony Plato 428/7 – 348/7 *“Aristocles” *Parents: Aristo, Perictione *Older brothers: Glaucon & Adeimantus *Father a wealthy and distinguished diplomat for Athens; mother possibly a Pythagorean philosopher (there are several Perictiones listed in DK) Events Contemporary with Plato *431-21: Peloponnesian War, Part I *429: Death of Pericles *415: Athens attacks Siracusa *413: Athens loses (Plato 15) *411: Coup of the 400 *406: Arginusae *404: Athens surrenders, rule of the 30 *399: Trial and Death of Socrates (Plato 28) *Tradition says Plato went to Megara: Egypt?...
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