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201 14 F07 Parmenides 100907

201 14 F07 Parmenides 100907 - Selections from Theaetetus...

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October 16, 2007; Selections from Theaetetus and Parmenides , p. 1 Theaetetus Selections and Parmenides (first part) Philo 201: Lecture 14, October 16, 2007 Review of Plato’s Theory of Forms 1. Types of forms * Mathematical: Numbers, geometrical objects, operational (addition, subtraction); etc. * Syntactical: existence, sameness and difference, etc. * Value forms: The Good, Beauty, Justice … * Natural kinds (horse, cow); empirical qualities (red, blue) 2. Relation of forms to each other: *Derivation: e.g. numbers from the one and the dyad; geometrical forms from geometrical principles *Functional identity? E.g.: “Beauty” = “The Good” = “The One” *Scalar differentiation between opposites *Vertical: One vs. Many *Horizontal: many sensory qualities, e.g. sweet/sour 3. Relation of forms to physical entities *Constitutive? *Definitive? *Paradigmatic? *Telic? 4. Relation of forms to sense data *Constitutive? *Definitive? *Paradigmatic? *Telic? *“Imitation” vs. “Participation” talk 5. Relation of forms to thoughts *“Object of thought” – not “content” *How are mistakes possible? *Or: how is it possible that we do not always err? 6. Relation of forms to Language *Do Plato’s arguments imply a one-to-one correspondence between Form and Word? Theaetetus: Quick review of some arguments, requested by some of the TA s. *Reading is online, in the same folder as the outline notes Theaetetus of Sunion b. 415 *(Nails says that he died 391, not 369; she is also not confident about his precise
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October 16, 2007; Selections from Theaetetus and Parmenides , p. 2 contributions to math, pace Euclid) * http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/References/Theaetetus.html *Incommensurability Theodorus of Cyrene 465-398+ *Mathematician from north Africa. Had associated with Protagoras, but was not a Sophist himself. Plato indicates that he had approached the issue of irrational numbers via geometrical diagrams. See Nails p. 282. * http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Theodorus.html Def I: Episteme = aisthesis *Protagoras: homo mensura. If k = perception, Prot is right. *“Secret doctrine”: “Nothing is one thing just by itself nor can you call it some definite name, nor say that it is any definite sort.” *Heraclitus added in: the essential aspect of change in perception. Theory of Perception *Perceived colors have no existence apart from the perceiver: meden hauto kath’ hauto hen on , there is no single thing itself by itself. Color is not the motion which comes to the eye (contra Gorgias in Meno ), nor is it the eye itself, but it “arises between the two.” Digression on Math (154) *Relational predicates used in non-relational sentences. *Two kinds of change: alteration and change of external predicates (internal and external relations). Connection to perception not made explicit here. Back to Perception *Pleasure and pain added in.
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