Chapter 5 - The Cold War - POL 15A IR THE COLD WAR Nye Welch Chapter 5 The Cold War A period of intense hostility without actual war between the United

Chapter 5 - The Cold War - POL 15A IR THE COLD WAR Nye...

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POL 15ANye/ WelchIRTHE COLD WARChapter 5-The Cold War A period of intense hostility without actual war between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted between 1947 to 1989oMany expected armed conflict between the two superpowersoFighting occurred on the peripheries and not directly between the United States and the Soviet Uniono1947 – 1963 The height of the war Few serious negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union1945 – 1955 no summit meetings1952 George Kennan, United States ambassador in Moscow compared his isolation in the American embassy to his experienced of being internedin the American embassyo1963 – 1991 easing of tensions and the end of the war1970s – 1980s The United States and the Soviet Union had many contacts, and they constantly negotiated on arms control treaties1985 Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union and changed many Soviet policies1989 Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe collapses1991 Soviet Union disintegratedDETERRENCE AND CONTAINMENT-Deterrence Dissuade through fearoWith the advent of nuclear weapons, the superpowers depended more on dissuading by threat rather than on denying by defense after an attack occurredoClosely tied to the maintenance of large American and Soviet nuclear arsenalsAn extension of balance-of-power logicA way each superpower tried to prevent the other from gaining advantageoOften aggravated the tension between the United States and the Soviet UnionoDifficult to prove that it worked-Containment referred to a specific American policy of containing Soviet communism so as to promote a liberal economic and political world orderoMany different formsOffensive and defensiveUse military power in the form of war or alliancesUse economic power in the form of trading blocs or sanctionsCan use soft power in the form of promoting ideas and values
POL 15ANye/ WelchIRTHE COLD WARChapter 5oThe United States wavered between an expansive policy of containing communism and a more limited policy of containing the Soviet UnionTHREE APPROACHES TO THE COLD WAR-Traditionalist Stalin and the Soviet Union started the Cold WaroAt the end of World War II, American diplomacy was defensive, while the Soviets were aggressive and expansiveThe Americans simply responded to the Soviet threatoAfter World War II:The United States proposed a world order and collective security through the United NationsThe Soviet Union did not take the United Nations seriouslyThe UN did not fit into the Soviet Union’s plans to expand and dominate Eastern EuropeThe United States demobilized its troopsThe Soviet Union left large armies in Eastern EuropeThe United States recognized Soviet interestsRoosevelt went out of his way to accommodate Stalin’s interests at the Yalta Conference in 1945Stalin did not live up to his agreementsDid not allow free elections in Poland

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