Maslow - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs An example of the...

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs An example of the Humanistic approach Humanistic Psychology: an alternative to Psychoanalysis and to Behaviorism 0. Humanistic psychology reacted against Freud’s focus on unconscious forces and on behaviorism’s focus on the influence of the environment. 1. People were not viewed as machines or mindless but as having conscious minds and free will. Humanistic Psychology and Personality 2. The Association of Humanistic Psychology adopted four basic principles: 3. 1. The experiencing person is of primary interest 4. 2. Human choice, creativity, and self-actualization are the preferred topics of investigation 5. 3. Meaningfulness must precede objectivity in the selection of research problems 6. 4. Ultimate value is placed on the dignity of the person The text describes Carl Rogers’ approach and then Abraham Maslow’s approach Maslow’s starting point 0. Maslow was interested in what makes people happy, healthy, and productive. 1. He interviewed certain people he thought had healthy personalities and also examined the lives of historical figures such as: 2. Beethoven, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt. 3. He wanted to know what these people had in common. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 7. All of us have needs we try to meet. 8. Some of these needs are more basic and physical: like need for food 9. And others are social: like need for love 4. Each level contains needs we desire to fulfill. 5. The lower needs are more pressing in some sense. 6. We must “have enough” to satisfy the lower needs before we can begin to address the upper level needs. 7. We do not have to “completely” fulfill lower needs in or to consider the upper needs. 8. Physiological Needs
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Belongingness and Love Needs Esteem Needs Self-actualization Deficiency Needs and Being Needs 10. The four lower levels were called deficiency needs because they represented needs where something lacking and needed filling. 11. The needs for self-actualization were called being needs because they represented areas of growth rather than lack. 12. When navigating the levels, a person can move back and forth as circumstances change. 13. For example: if someone working on esteem needs loses his or her job, the person may then return to working on physiological or safety needs until a new job is found. Self-Actualization 14. In humanistic personality theories, the need to fulfill one’s unique potential. 15. Maslow described self-actualized people as having certain common characteristics. Characterisitics of being Self-actualized
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Acorn during the Fall '06 term at Lander.

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Maslow - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs An example of the...

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