Unformatted text preview: Beginnings of Psychology Perception studies showed that we could predict the relationship between sensory information and conscious experience. Again, this indicated to scientists that the mind could be studied scientifically. 0. 1. A Science of Psychology Two main questions a new psychology would have to answer: What should psychologists study? 2. How should they study this? What methods should they use? 0. Wilhelm Wundt Established the first true scientific laboratory for psychology in: 1. This was the first laboratory dedicated to scientific experiments that would be considered psychological. 2. He also trained many graduate students and wrote numerous books on the new science of psychology. 0. Wundt's answers to the first question: What? Psychologists should study: What is conscious experience? 1. The momentary thoughts, feelings, perceptions, memories, dreams, internal visual and auditory images, etc. that you have at an instant. 2. Your current awareness. 3. Each instant of consciousness is different. 4. When you faint or are "knocked unconscious" you have no awareness, no conscious experience. 2. Wundt's answer to the second question: How? Psychologists should use three methods: Introspection The term means to "look inside" A highly trained individual could "look inside" at his or her own conscious experience 5. And then report what he or she observed 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 9. Report perceptions of: Sights, sounds, tastes, feels, smells Let's Introspect! Let's try a short introspection You are considered "nave" introspecters 10. Wundt's trained scientists were highly instructed on what and how to make introspective reports 11. It was expected that each person would report the same conscious experience when presented with the same stimulus. 12. Experimentation Experimentation involved: 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. One example is the "reaction time experiment" This experiment was used by other scientists before Wundt. In this experiment, we see how quickly a person responds to a stimulus Stimulus By definition: A stimulus is: 18. 19. 20. Colors, sounds, smells Sometimes internal such as: Stomach aches, pain, feeling warm inside First we will view a reaction to one stimulus 21. Here we will use reactions to one light 22. What do you think the reaction time would be? How fast were you? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Let's describe what needed to happen in order for you to respond to the circle: The information from the screen traveled to your eye. The eye reacted, then sent a signal to your brain. You brain recognized the signal. Other parts of your brain made a decision about what to do. Information went to the parts of your brain that control your muscles. The brain sent a signal out your head, down your arm, to the muscles in your fingers and arm. 10. Your muscles contracted and moved your finger to the button. 11. 23. button. 24. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. You pushed the button Let's make it more complicated. We will now use circles of two different colors. If the circle is green, press the right If the circle is orange, press the left button. How fast were you in these more complex tasks? Typically, reaction times are slower to this second task. Everything about your actions is the same, except in the second task you must: Make a decision about which button to push. We can use this experiment to measure: 25. 26. We can measure the: Speed of thought! Cultural Analysis 27. Cultural analysis is not used in this way in psychology today. 28. We do some cross-cultural comparisons but other disciplines like anthropology tend to perform more of these types of studies. ...
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- Fall '06
- Psychology, conscious experience