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topic4-1 - BIOL 1030 TOPIC 4 LECTURE NOTES Topic 4...

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BIOL 1030 – TOPIC 4 LECTURE NOTES Topic 4: Plants (Kingdom Plantae – Ch. 29) – Introduction; Nonvascular Plants I. Kingdom Plantae – general characteristics A. eukaryotic, multicellular, with cell walls rich in cellulose B. most are photosynthetic, with chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids C. all have alternation of generations D. dominate nearly all terrestrial communities (exceptions in tundra); major producers in most of these habitats E. source of food, shelter, clothing, much of the atmosphere’s oxygen F. ~300,000 described living species in 10 phyla G. two groups: 1. nonvascular plants (a grade) and vascular plants (a clade) 2. vascular plants divided into those without seeds (a grade) and those with seeds (a clade) II. Evolutionary origin and adaptations to land A. related to green algae 1. chloroplast similarity 2. cellulose in cell walls 3. starch as energy reserve 4. formation of cell plate during division (found in plants and some green algae) 5. genetic similarities (especially ribosomal RNA sequence); plant clade is ~500 million years old 6. distinguished from green algae because diploid form always begins development within tissues of a haploid form, and always have heteromorphic (different-looking) haploid and diploid forms 7. also distinguished by adaptations to survival on land, including protecting embryos B. revised classification: Kingdom Viridiplantae 1. cladistic analysis shows no clear division between plants (traditional Kingdom Plantae) and green algae (traditional Phylum Chlorophyta) 2. instead, traditional land plants together with some green algae apparently form a monophyletic group called Streptophyta 3. the Streptophyta together with the rest of the green algae apparently form a monophyletic group, the proposed (and increasingly accepted) Kingdom Viridiplantae (or Viridaeplantae) C. adaptations to land 1. plants are primarily terrestrial – few aquatic species 2. plants likely first terrestrial organisms 3.
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