ANT 121 Lecture Notes Part 2

ANT 121 Lecture Notes Part 2 - ANT 121 Peoples and Cultures...

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Unformatted text preview: ANT 121 Peoples and Cultures of the World Lecture Notes 10/1/07- 10/31/07 EXAM 2 NOVEMBER 12, 2007 ANT 121 Lecture Notes 10/1/07 Sambia and the Social Construction of Gender Papa New Guinea Eastern Islands Province The Big Ideas Social Construction of Personality GENDER Warfare and Warrior Culture Hyper-masculinity Derogation of the feminine Reproduction of a contradiction: Necessary motherhood but Female Pollution Sex and Gender Sex is the biological endowment of male and female attributes Gender is the Social (cultural) recognition of sex Gender socially constructed Machismo in New Guinea Exaggerated masculinity, overly physical men, over sexual with women Warrior Complex Hypertrophied Masculinity Male anxiety about female POLLUTION Elaborate Male initiation rite Secret Cult for men Strong male-female separation Male Hierarchy in the home, male age graded hierarchy in society Ethnography of Sambian Gender Interpretive Holistic Reflexive Emotional (feelings) Cognitive ideas/beliefs Behavioral (action) Environment Mountains VERY steep, difficult travel, isolation Altitude main habitats Riverine land Habitation Zone Secondary Forest- Communal Gardens Pandanus Nut Forest High Forest Hunting territory Highland New Guinea Culture Complex Slash-Burn Gardening Small scattered hamlets Landholding Patri-clans Patrilocal residence Rampant Warfare Male Initiation Rites Secret Cults Male-Female Antagonism Sambia: A fringe Group Population 2000 + Recent Occupation of territory 6 Sub-tribes each in own valley Slash and Burn Gardening Pig Herding Staples: Sweet Potato and Taro, seasonal yams Slash and Burn Gardening Differs from farming Bush Fallowing Land extensive, not labor extensive Soil fertilized by ash of woody growth Cropping season< Fallowing period Cultivated plots in one season are a small fraction of total area needed Division of labor Men: hunting, trading Female: gardening, childcare ANT 121 Lecture Notes 10/8/07 Sambia Social Structures Language group/tribe (2400) Subtribes 6 200-400 members in each Phatry (subtribe) 10 1-3 per tribe Clan 30+ The Hamlet 40 3-7 per tribe (70-110) 1-2 clans, wives, guests The Hamlet Small village Often palisaded, on a ridge Includes residences, club houses, gardens, pathways Ideally associated with one clan- the clan descended from the father War-making Unit Hunting organized within Hamlet Gardens are arranged around Hamlet Hamlet property- Ceremonial grounds, club house, hunting territory Marriage- 80% patrilocal Exogamous de facto What is exogamous by Sambian law? The Clan Stipulates descent from mythic ancestor Patrilineal Patrilocal (wife is outsider) Named (Wunyu, Yulamwi, Seboola) Exogamous de jure Corporate Estate Garden land Pandanus groves Forest preserves Clan Fragmentation Clans tend to split as they grow large One brother moves away He (and family) join another clan as guests; or He becomes founder of a new clan in a new Hamlet The new clan is stall related to the old clan Clans are segments of a huge family tree (upside down)...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ANT 121 taught by Professor Freedman during the Fall '07 term at Syracuse.

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ANT 121 Lecture Notes Part 2 - ANT 121 Peoples and Cultures...

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