philosophy based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha, who
lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE.
It was the first world religion known to
Beginning in India, Buddhism spread progressively throughout Asia to Central
Asia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan.
consists of beliefs to avoid pain and suffering by having peaceful surroundings and
spiritual training to promote inner peace either for oneself, or for all beings.
once said, “I teach only two things, O disciples, the fact of suffering and the possibility of
escape from suffering” (Ross, 81).
The birth of Buddha is depicted, in Bharhut, as his mother, Queen Maya, giving
birth to him from her side as she stands leaning beneath a sal tree.
It is said in the
Buddhist legend that “Queen Maya was ‘immaculately’ impregnated by a white elephant
who visited her in a dream, touching her side with a white lotus” (Ross, 101).
Gandhara, the birth of Buddha is still from his mother’s side, but he standing on a lotus
base by his mother’s knee and she is seen leaning on a blossoming tree.
stood, lotus would bloom beneath his footprints.
Buddhist art is just as old as Buddhism itself. In early India, it was influenced
greatly by Mauryan emperor Asoka who was accountable for the building of several
stupas, which are burial or sacred reliquary mounds of brick honoring Budda.
is the most distinguishing monument of Buddhist India.
It was designed for pilgrims so
they can take a ritual walk, always counterclockwise, on “the Path of Life around the
Therefore the stupa might have been said to represent a cosmic
The stupa was a symbol of the Buddha’s final release from the cycle of birth