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Chapter 33 #2.docx - Chapter 33 Assessment of the...

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Chapter 33Assessment of the Cardiovascular SystemSurface Anatomy of the HeartBlood Flow Through the HeartThe cardiovascular (CV) system is responsible for supplying oxygen to body organs and other tissues(PERFUSION). It is made up of the heart and blood vessels (both arteries and veins).The heart muscle, called themyocardium, must receive sufficient oxygen to pump blood to other parts of thebody. The arteries must be patent so the pumped blood can reach the rest of the body. Oxygen in the blood isrequired for cells to live and function properly.The cardiovascular (CV) system is responsible for supplying oxygen to body organs and other tissues (PERFUSION)The human heart is a fist-sized, muscular organ located in the mediastinum between the lungs. Each beat of theheart pumps about 60 mL of blood, or 5 L/min. During strenuous physical activity, the amount of blood pumped candouble to meet the body's increased gas exchange needs. A covering called thepericardiumprotects the heart. Amuscular wall (septum) separates the heart into two halves: right and left. Each half has an atrium and a ventricleDeoxygenated blood is returned via the inferior and superior vena cavaoTheright atrium (RA)receivesdeoxygenatedvenous blood, through the opened tricuspid valve,and to the right ventricle, pulmonary artery and lungs, pulmonary veins into the left atrium,mitral valve into the left ventricle, blood is propelled into the aorta and the systemic arterialcirculation.oRight coronary artery (RCA) branches from aorta to perfuse the right side of the heart.oCircumflex coronary artery flows from myocardium primarily during diastole when coronary vascularresistanceoLeft main coronary artery (LMCA) feeds the left heart. This divides into two branches-oLeft anterior descending (LAD) branch - Descends towards the lateral wall of the left ventricle. Suppliesblood to portions of the left ventricle, ventricular septum, chordae tendineae, papillary muscle, and, to alesser extent, the right ventricleoleft circumflex branch (LCX) - Descends towards the lateral wall of left ventricle in apex. Supplies bloodto left atrium, the lateral and posterior surface of the left ventricle, and sometimes portions of theintraventricular septumCardiac Valves1.Tricuspid valve2.Mitral valve3.Pulmonic valve4.Aortic valve1
The fourcardiac valvesare responsible for maintaining the forward flow of blood through the chambers of theheart (seeFig. 33-2). These valves open and close when pressure and volume change within the heart'schambers. The cardiac valves are classified into two types: atrioventricular (AV) valves and semilunar valves.TheAV valvesseparate the atria from the ventricles. Thetricuspid valveseparates the RA from the RV.

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