Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning - Segmentation...

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Unformatted text preview: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Nivea Avon General Mills Home Depot What are some commonly used demographic, geographic and behavioral descriptors? SAGA segmentation of UK grandparents, where a complete description of each category can be found in this Pharmaceutical industry segmentation Inline skating segmentation A Useful Tool for Assessing Market Segments: Segment Rating Chart WEIGHT RATING (0-10) TOTAL Customer needs and behavior .5 10 5.0 Segment size and growth rate .3 7 2.1 Macro trends .2 8 1.6 Total: Market attractiveness 1.0 Market attractiveness factors 8.7 Competitive position factors Opportunity for competitive advantage .6 7 4.2 Capabilities and resources .2 5 1.0 Industry attractiveness .2 7 1.4 Total: Competitive position 1.0 6.6 The Market Attractiveness/ Competitive Position Matrix Market Attractiveness High (8-10) Moderate (4-7) Low (0-3) Low Moderate High (0-3) (4-7) (8-10) Company’s Competitive Position = Market attractiveness and competitive position of distance runners segment Implications of Alternative Positions Within the Market-Attractiveness/ Competitive-Position Matrix Market Attractiveness Weak High Med. Low Build selectively: • Spec. in limited strengths • Seek to overcome weak. • Withdraw if indications of sustainable growth are lacking Limited expansion or harvest: • Look for ways to expand w/out high risk; otherwise min. invest. and focus operations Competitive Position Medium Strong Desirable Potential Target Protect position: • Invest to grow at max. digestible rate • Concentrate on maintaining strength Desirable Potential Target Manage for earnings: Build selectively: • Protect existing strengths • Invest to improve position only • Emphasize profitability by increasing productivity in areas where risk is low • Build up ability to counter competition Desirable Potential Target Invest to build: • Challenge for leadership • Build selectively on strengths • Reinforce vulnerable areas Divest: Manage for earnings: • Sell when possible to maximize • Protect position • Minimize investment cash value • Meantime, cut fixed costs & avoid further investment Protect and refocus: • Defend strengths • Seek ways to increase current earnings without speeding market’s decline Sources: Adapted from George S. Day, Analysis for Strategic Market Decisions (St. Paul: West, 1986), p. 204; D. F. Abell and J. S. Hammond, Strategic Market Planning Problems and Analytical Approaches (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979); and S. J. Robinson, R. E. Hitchens, and D. P. Wade, “The Directional Policy Matrix: Tool for Strategic Planning,” Long Range Planning 11 (1978), pp. 8-15. Concentrated Concentrate Marketing on the most attractive segment Undifferentiated One Marketing marketing mix for all Differentiated Modify Marketing marketing mix for different segments Subway What is Positioning? A couple of definitions Creating distinct and valued physical and perceptual differences between one’s product and its competitors, as perceived by the target customer. The act of designing the firm’s market offering so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the minds of its target customers. Generic Competitive Strategies Exhibit 7.1 Competitive Advantage Lower Cost Broad Target Competitive Scope Narrow Target Differentiation Cost Leadership Strategy Differentiation Strategy Focus Strategy Focus Strategy (Differentiation Based) Source: Adapted from Michael Porter, Competitive Advantage,New York: The Free Press, 1985, p. 12. Comparison of Physical and Perceptual Positioning Analysis Physical positioning • Technical orientation • Physical characteristics • Objective measures • Data readily available • Physical brand properties • Large number of dimensions • Represents impact of product specs and price • Direct R&D implications Exhibit 7.3 Perceptual positioning • Consumer orientation • Perceptual attributes • Perceptual measures • Need for marketing research • Perceptual brand positions and positioning intensities • Limited number of dimensions • Represents impact of product specs and communication • R&D implications need to be interpreted Levers to establish positioning Simple physically based attributes Single physical dimension such as quality, power or size Complex Physically based attributes Concepts like “roominess” and “User friendly” Essentially abstract attributes Not directly related to the physical attributes, sexiness of perfume, prestige Price Steps in the Positioning Process Exhibit 7.4 (1 of 2) 1. Identify relevant set of competitive products serving a target market. 2. Identify the set of determinant attributes that define the “product space” in which positions of current offerings are located. 3. Collect information from a sample of customers and potential customers about perceptions of each product on the determinant attributes. Features Benefits Parentage Manufacturing Processes Ingredients Endorsements Comparison Pro Environment Price/Quality Steps in the Positioning Process Exhibit 7.4 (2 of 2) 4. Determine product’s current location (positioning) in the product space and intensity thereof. 5. Determine customers’ most preferred combination of determinant attributes. 6. Examine the fit between preferences of market segments and current position of product (market positioning). 7. Write positioning statement or value proposition to guide development and implementation of marketing strategy. Look for opportunities Repositioning hard to do Don’t be too confusing ( Holiday Inn) Discussion Question 3. What’s the tangible output of the positioning process? Positioning Statement for Volvo in North America For upscale American families, Volvo is the family automobile that offers maximum safety Generic format for positioning statements: For (target market), (brand) is the (product category) that (benefit offered). Value Proposition for Volvo in North America Target market: Upscale American families Benefits offered: Safety Relative price: 20% premium to domestic family cars Generic format for value propositions: Target market Benefits offered (and sometimes not offered) Relative price Some Key Questions Concerning Positioning Decisions For whom are they written? In what sort of language? Should they focus on features or benefits? How many differentiating attributes should anchor them? A Useful Tool for Positioning Decision Making: Perceptual Maps Not Sweet Sweet Nutritious Not Nutritious Where would you plot your favorite cereals? Your kids’ favorites? Your grandma’s? Discussion Question 4. What is positioning’s role once a product’s positioning strategy has been determined? Positioning Green FedEX Fast, reliable on-time delivery Southwest Airlines Affordable, no-frills air travel Rolex Status-symbol fashion accessory Ebay The virtual marketplace to buy or sell anything ...
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