Chapter1PPT - Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS AND JAVA...

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1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS AND JAVA
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2 COMPUTERS A computer is a programmable electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes a large quantity of data both quickly and accurately. A computer system consists of both hardware and software.
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3 COMPUTER HARDWARE The physical components of the computer system are the hardware .
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4 COMPUTER HARDWARE The Central Processing Unit The part of the computer that follows the instructions of a program is called the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU has two components, the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit. The control unit fetches the instructions of the executing program and sequences and controls the operations of other hardware components by sending them the appropriate signals. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic and logic operations including: addition, negation, multiplication, comparison, etc.
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5 COMPUTER HARDWARE The Central Processing Unit When a computer program is executing the CPU performs a series of steps—the fetch/decode/execute cycle: 1. The control unit fetches the next coded instruction from memory. 2. The control unit translates the instruction into control signals. 3. The control signals are applied to tell the appropriate unit (ALU, memory, input device, output device, etc.) to perform some operation. 4. The sequence repeats from step 1 until the complete program is executed.
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6 COMPUTER HARDWARE Main Memory The main memory of a computer is a device that stores both the instructions of executing programs and their data.
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7 COMPUTER HARDWARE Main Memory A memory is an ordered sequence of storage locations or cells. Each cell has a distinct address, which is used in storing and retrieving information from the cell.
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8 COMPUTER HARDWARE Main Memory The information in a computer is stored and manipulated in binary form, strings of 1’s and 0’s. A single 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit . A group of 8 bits is called a byte . Each addressable cell of the main memory is large enough to store an 8 bit (1 byte) code.
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9 COMPUTER HARDWARE Main Memory The main memory is typically a type of memory known as random access memory (RAM). This is a volatile type of memory that can store information as long as the power is maintained. The information is lost if the computer is turned off or loses power. Programs and data that need to be saved long term are usually saved on some type of secondary storage device that is nonvolatile and are loaded into main memory to be used.
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10 COMPUTER HARDWARE Secondary Storage Secondary storage devices hold data and programs long term (even when the program is not running or the computer is turned off). These are loaded into main memory as they are needed.
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course CS 1336 taught by Professor Thompson during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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Chapter1PPT - Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS AND JAVA...

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