Gen Bio 119-115 - Intro/Scientific Process Dr Hernandez...

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Intro/Scientific Process 09/03/2013 ° Dr. Hernandez ° Office Hours: Thursday 1:30-300pm ° Office: Room 106A, Biological Sciences Building Douglass Campus ° ° policy details are in the course packet, familiarize with rules and policies ° complete Policy Acknowledgement on Sakai before the 1 st workshop ° check sakai daily for any possible announcements ° there will be 2 midterm exams and 1 final ° midterms: 75 Q’s, Sunday Oct 6, Nov 10 (3-4:20pm) ° final exam: 150 Q’s, Saturday Dec 21 (1-4pm) ° all exams are cumulative, comprehensive ° workshops start week of Sept. 9 th (mandatory) ° lab is separate (2 credit course) bio117 ° ° What is biology? ° Study of all living things, interactions, life ° ° The Common Characteristics of Life ° 1. Organization ° 2. Genetic Information
° 3. Energy & Matter ° 4. Interactions ° 5. Evolution ° ° 1. Organization : Life has emergent properties in successive levels or organization, i.e. as complexity increases (molecules, macro-molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems). There is correlation between structure and function at all levels of organization. ° - leaf structure in carrying out photosynthesis ° - evolution by natural selection (anteaters, length of mouth and tongue) ° 2. Genetic Information : Cell, DNA, DNA Strands, Nucleotides (A,T,C,G) ° 3. Energy & Matter : The flow of energy and the cycling of chemicals. Energy flows in one direction. (sun, primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, microorganisms and other detritivores, detritus, some energy is lost as heat). ° 4. Interactions : can happen at all levels of organization (population, ecosystem) ° 5. Evolution : central to everything we know about living things, approximately 1.4 million species exist on earth (phylogeny of horses over the past 55 million years), a large number of species have many features in common, evolution provides a scientific explanation for diversity and commonalities of life ° ° 8 important themes of general biology ° chemistry, cell biology, energetics, gene expression, evolution, ecology, diversity, systems ° ° ° Process of Inquiry (search for information and explanations of natural phenomena) ° The Scientific Method ° 1. Making Observations ° 2. Ask a Question
° 3. Form a Hypothesis ° 4. Make a Prediction from Hypothesis ° 5. Test Prediction (Experiment) ° - [use statistics to evaluate significance of results, results not supporting hypothesis, re-examine experiment for uncontrolled variables, revise hypothesis] ° - [significant results supporting hypothesis, experiments repeated & results verified by other researchers, ask new questions] ° ° Two Broad Methods of Reasoning in the Scientific Method ° 1. Inductive Reasoning (deriving generalizations from a large number of specific observations) observation, pattern, tentative hypothesis, theory ° - the sun always rises in the east ° - all organisms are made of cells ° 2. Deductive Reasoning (extrapolating from general premises to specific observations) theory, hypothesis, observation, confirmation °

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