Exam1 Winter 08 with answers and page numbers

Exam1 Winter 08 with answers and page numbers - Name: _...

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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________ Page: 20-21, 25 1. Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as: A) random sampling. B) the hindsight bias. C) illusory correlation. D) random assignment. Ans: B Page: 25 2. A hypothesis is a(n): A) observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables. B) testable prediction that gives direction to research. C) set of principles that organizes and explains newly discovered facts. D) unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning. Ans: B Page: 28 3. Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does. Jeff's belief best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) the hindsight bias. C) an illusion of control. D) the placebo effect. Ans: A Page: 31 4. If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +0.85, this would indicate that: A) the relationship between weight and reading ability among elementary school students is not statistically significant. B) low body weight has a negative effect on the reading abilities of elementary school children. C) better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among elementary school students. D) body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities of elementary school children. Ans: C Page: 36 5. Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships? A) the survey B) the experiment C) correlational research D) naturalistic observation Ans: B Page 1
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Page: 37 6. To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control conditions can be attributed to placebo effects, researchers make use of: A) random sampling. B) the double-blind procedure. C) random assignment. D) operational definitions. Ans: B Page: 42 7. Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from: A) a range to a standard deviation. B) a standard deviation to a mean. C) a sample to a population. D) a scatterplot to a skewed distribution. Ans: C Page: 46 8. Psychologists study animals because: A) animal behavior is just as complex as human behavior. B) experiments on people are generally considered to be unethical. C) the ethical treatment of animals is not mandated by professional guidelines. D) similar processes often underlie animal and human behavior. Ans: D Page: 48 9. In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes: A) obtain written promises from participants to respond honestly. B)
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Exam1 Winter 08 with answers and page numbers - Name: _...

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