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Unformatted text preview: Bureaucracy
The departments, agencies, bureaus, and offices that perform the function of national, state and local government Implementation Regulation Federal Register The Bureaucracy The 4 Top Departments Secretaries of (Agency) The older the department the more prestigious Secretary of State 1789 Treasury Defense Justice Department (Attorney General) How Mid-management Bureaucrats are Chosen The Spoils System this is the selection of employees for government agencies on the basis of party loyalty, electoral support, and political influence. President Jackson abused this system President Garfield was killed because of it How Bureaucrats are Chosen
The Pendleton Act 1883 Federal Government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit and that Government employees be selected through competitive exams Enforcer: Civil Service Commission Merit System: This is a system of selecting employees for government agencies on the basis of competence with No consideration of Political Affiliation. Budgeting for the Bureaucracy Appropriations Act: This is a congressional bill that provides money for programs previously authorized by Congress This money is allocated for the following Fiscal year (October 1 - September 30th) The Federal Courts Judiciary Act of 1789 created the Federal Court systems we have today U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. Court of Appeals (Circuit Court) District Courts The Lower Courts
Supreme Court of Texas 9 member Court with Final appellate jurisdiction. Hears cases decided in the state Court of Appeals Court of Appeals hears appeals from County and District Courts District Courts - Primary Trial Court in TX (Civil Actions and Criminal actions Involving Felony charges) County Courts civil actions no more than $5,000 and Criminal cases w/jail sentences Municipal Courts limited jurisdiction. Hear cases involving City ordinances and traffic tickets etc. District Courts (Federal)
Local District Courts are part of the Federal Court system at the local level / Representing the State. Indicted - formal accusation initiating a criminal case, usually required for felonies and other serious crimes Grand Jury - This Jury sits in private quarters and iss called to hear evidence and decide whether a defendant should be indicted and tried. How Judges are Appointed FEDERAL JUDGES Appointed by President for life terms. TEXAS JUDGES - are elected by Voters in partisan elections, to limited terms. MUNICIPAL court judges are appointed by the City Council Court Created laws vs. Legislative Created Laws The Laws that are created by the Legislature are called Statutory Laws If law is questioned as to its constitutionality > Judicial Review :The Power of the Court to invalidate a statutory law ONLY IF, law conflicts with the original intent of the founding fathers Judicial Judicial Restraint :This is the Self-imposed limitation on judicial power by judges deferring to the policy judgments of the elected branches of Government. Judicial Activism The Making of new law through judicial interpretation of the Constitution Noteworthy Cases in Federal and Texas Courts MARBURY V. MADISON CLINTON V. JONES RUIZ V. ESTELLE [ Texas ] ...
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- Spring '08