Chapter 6 tortora.pptx - Bone Tissue BIO 137 Anatomy &...

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Bone TissueBIO 137 Anatomy & Physiology I
The Skeletal SystemOrgansBonesCartilagesTendonsLigamentsFunctionsSupportProtectionMovementHematopoiesisMineral StoreEnergy Store
Tissues of the Skeletal SystemBoneis a highly vascularized C.T. with a hard, mineralizedextracellular matrix. It is found in the body in two differentarrangements:Compact bone– 80% of bone in skeletonSpongy bone -20% of bone in skeletonis seen as
Compact BoneMost rigid connectivetissueContinuous, solidextracellular matrixfound between cellsMatrix composed ofmineral salts andcollagenHardness due to mineralsalts in matrixCollagen providesstrength and resilience
Spongy BoneMade of Bony platescalledtrabeculaeSpace betweentrabeculae filled with redbone marrowFound in flat bonesbetween sheets ofcompact boneFound in epiphyses oflong bonesSpongy bone reduces abone’s weight
Long Bone StructureEpiphysis-Expanded ends of a long bone, articulateswith other bonesArticular cartilage(hyaline cartilage) on outer surfaceComposed of mostlyspongy (cancellous) bonesurrounded bythin layers of compact boneRed bone marrow withHematopoietic stem cellslocated hereHyaline cartilage isthe articularcartilage of thislong bone
Long Bone StructureDiaphysis– shaft of boneCentralmedullary cavityHollow tube in diaphysis filled withyellow marrowMedullary Cavity is lined byendosteumOsteoclasts locatedin endosteumMetaphysis– region betweendiaphysis and epiphysisGrowth plate here
Themedullary cavityis a spacewithin the diaphysis of long bonesthat contains fatty yellow bonemarrow in adults.Theendosteumis a membrane thatlines the medullary cavity .The endosteum is composed ofosteoclasts, osteoblasts, andconnective tissue.Nutrient foramen– canal where vesselsenter/exit a boneLone Bone Structure
Theperiosteumis a tough sheath of dense, irregularconnective tissue on the outside of the bone.It containsosteoblaststhathelp the bone grow in thickness,but not in length.Continuous with tendons and ligamentsIt also assists with fracture repairLong Bone Structure
Chemical Constituents of BoneBone is 15% water, 30% organic proteins, 55% mineral salts(hydroxyapatite crystals).Organic constituentsCollagen fibers provide flexibility and tensile strength.Inorganic hydroxyapatite crystals (mineral salts)Calcium Phosphate (Ca3PO4)2Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3– marble)Other trace elements: magnesium, fluoride, sulfate
Bone CellsOsteogenic Stem CellDerived from mesenchymeForms osteoblastsOnly Mitotic bone cellOsteoblastsBone forming cells,deposit bony matrixaround themselvesOsteocytesmatured osteoblastsCompletely surrounded by bonymatrixCarries out daily cellular activitiesOsteoclastsBone breakdown(resorption)

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Term
Spring
Professor
PaulD.Foglesong
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