midterm solution - 1 Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange refers to the exchange of plants and animals between Europe and the New World following

midterm solution - 1 Columbian Exchange The Columbian...

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1. Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange refers to the exchange of plants and animals between Europe and the New World following Columbus’s discovery of America in 1492. The Spanish began the Columbian Exchange of plants and animals between Europe and the New World. For example, the Spanish first introduced horses and gunpowder to the New World. At the same time, New World crops such as corn, potatoes and tomatoes enriched the European diet and lengthen average life spans. 2. The Iroquois Nations The Iroquois Confederacy who were Pre-Columbian Native Americans constituted the most important and powerful North American political alliance at the time. The confederacy ended generations of tribal warfare. 3. Tobacco 1 Tobacco enabled the Chesapeake Bay colonies to become economically feasible. 2 Chesapeake Bay tobacco planters initially used indentured servants imported from England. 3 Tobacco was the most valuable cash crop produced in the Southern colonies until the invention of the cotton gin in 1793.
4. Abigail Adams The setting 1 Married women had no legal identity apart from their husbands. 2 Abigal Adams was a well-educated woman who was an early proponent of women’s rights. Abigal Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, urging him to “”remember the Ladies“ by granting them greater political and legal rights. Adam’s letter demonstrates that there were colonial women who wanted a greater voice in political affairs. 5. Anne Hutchinson 1 Anne Hutchinson is best known for her struggle with the Massachusetts Bay authorities over religious doctrine and gender roles. She is a noteworthy example of a dissident who challenged the early Puritans. 2 Anne Hutchinson advocated unconventional religious views that challenged the authority of Puritan magistrates. 3 Claim to have had revelations from God, Anne Hutchinson questioned established religious doctrines and the role of women in Puritan society. Massachusetts Bay officials banished Anne Hutchinson to Rhode Island.
6. Bacon’s Rebellion 1 Bacon led land hungry freemen in Virginia rebelled against the rule of Governor Berkeley in 1676. Bacon’s discontented followers challenged Berkeley’s power and burned down Jamestown. Bacon’s sudden death enabled Berkeley to crush rebels. 2 Causes Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by planter Bacon against Virginia governor Berkeley’s administration because of governmental corruption and because Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian Lands. 3 Significance Bacon’s Rebellion exposed tensions between poor former indentured servants and the wealthy tidewater gentry. Bacon’s Rebellion persuaded planters to replace troublesome indentured servants with slaves imported from Africa.

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