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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES363 P. Casal St. Quiapo, ManilaPRODUCTION OF CARBON BLACKSubmitted by: Casidlac, John Darren E.Submitted to: Engr. Lina Dela Cruz
INTRODUCTIONBlack grades, regardless of theproduction method used. Process-relatedvariations have already been addressed in thedescription of the various methods in use todayfor obtaining Carbon Black. Without the use ofphotographic image analysis the primaryparticles of Carbon Black cannot be seen withthe naked eye. It takes the tremendousmagnifying power of a scanning electronmicroscope (SEM) to show that CarbonBlack consists of chain-like clusterscomposed of spherical particles, the so-called primary particles. The product is not supplied inthe form of isolated primary particles, but as larger, tightly bonded aggregates which form theprimary building blocks. The primary particles vary in size and shape to impart specificapplication properties. The primary particle size is mentioned to indicate the applicationproperties of a given product. The aggregates typically form microscale agglomerates duringproduction, present in the supplied powders or pellets. Figure 24 depicts an SEM view of a singleparticle. The formation of spherical, branched aggregates, where the primary particle can havediameters between 10 and 500 nm, is typical of products that develop from the gaseous phase. Aswe cannot see and measure primary particles without involving expensive equipment and timeconsuming methods this form of Carbon Black has led to the defi nition of two propertiesScanning electron microscope view of a Carbon Black aggregate consisting of fusedprimary particle (magnification: x 120,000) that are of primary significance when it comes tocharacterizing Carbon Blacks and defining their suitability for specific applications:The specific surface area (m2/g) of Carbon Black is a function of primary particle size.Looking at geometric proportions, we can determine that smaller Carbon Black primary particleshave a higher specific surface area.Figure 1.1Carbon Black (Solid)
The structure designates the three-dimensional arrangement of primary particles in theaggregate.Extensive interlinking or branching characterizes a “high structure”, whereas lesspronounced inter-linking or branching indicates a “low structure”. Electron microscopycombined with X-ray structural micro-analysis, shows that these primary particles consist ofconcentrically arranged, graphite-like crystallites. By partially fusing together, the graphite layersare often twisted into each other, exhibiting a disordered state. A single primary particle cancontain up to 1,500 of such crystallites.A. PropertiesTable 1.1Properties of Carbon BlackPROPERTIES CARBON BLACKChemical formulaCMolar mass12.011 g/molDensity1.8-2.1 g/cm3Melting point3727 °CBoiling point4830 °CB.Market StudyAsiaPacific led the global market followed by Europe and North America. Stringent environmentalregulation may have a negative impact on the North America and Europe market. However,

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Term
Fall
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Carbon black, BIRLA CARBON, Thai Carbon Black Public Company Limited

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