Questions We Will Be Addressingin This Chapter•How does information turn into memories?•What am I most likely to remember?•How do I retrieve stored memories?•How accurate are my memories?•What causes me to forget things?•How does my brain change when I store a memory?•How can I remember more information?
The Nature of MemoryHow does new information turn into memories?
Basic Memory Processes•Encoding-the act of comprehending in order to remember–Acoustic codes–Visual codes–Semantic codes•Storage•Retrieval–Recall–Recognition
Figure 6.1: Basic Memory Processes
Types of Memory•Episodic memory•Semantic memory•Procedural memory
Recalling Memories•Explicit memory- Anything that you do remember the first encounter; IN YOUR FACE; what youre trying to remember•Implicit memory- unintentionally remembering; remember something but not remember experiencing it the first time; BUT YOU HAVE EXPERIENCED BEFORE–Priming- when a subject would be flashed a picture of the object but it would help build familiarity when shown later
Models of Memory•Levels-of-processing model–Maintenance rehearsal–Elaborative rehearsal•Transfer-appropriate processing model•Parallel distributed processing model•Information-processing model
Figure 6.2:Three Stages of Memory
Storing New MemoriesWhat am I most likely to remember?
Sensory Memory•Holds information long enough to be processed further.–Held in sensory registers•Helps us experience a constant flow of information, even if that flow is interrupted.•Role of selective attention
Short-Term Memory and Working Memory•Short-term memory (STM) stores limited information up to 18 seconds.•Working memory allows mental manipulation of information in STM–Maintenance component–Manipulation component•Encoding in STM often, but not always, acoustic•What is the storage capacity of STM?