Sleeping and Dreaming09/25/2014Freud °Cartwright °Hobson & McCarley °Biorhythms & sleep °Resetting the biological clock °EEG °Sleep cycles °Three functions of sleep °Sleep disorders °Features of dreams °Three theories of dreaming °°Biorhythms and Sleep:Circadian RythmsoAbout 24 hoursNatural SleepoLightoBody temperature changes°°Resetting the Biological Clock
Retina detects light change in eveningRetina sends message to Suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN)SCN sends message to pineal glandPineal gland releases melatoninMelatonin adjusts clockExtraverts have easier time resetting clock.Our body produces so much at night the Melatonin pills does nothing at night, but during the day can be very helpful.°°EEGElectroencephalographMeasures brain wavesSleep CyclesAwake: Beta (lo v, hi f)oHigher voltage lower frequency as we work into deep sleepDrowsy: Alpha wavesStage 1: Theta, few minutesoFantastic Image: Happens in stage one where you feel like youre following off a cliff, jerk and wake yourself up.oOther example is floating off bed. (second most common)Stage 2: Sleep spindles, mixed waves, about 20 minutesoNot a deep sleep
Stage 3 & 4: Delta, (hi v, lo f), about 30 minutes.oSleep walking/wet the bed usually at end of stage 4REM: Most dreaming (lo v, hi f)oChemicals relax/prevent muscle movementReason why in nightmares you have trouble moving quickly°°Functions of SleepProtectiveoMore trouble happens at night time, sleep prevents.RestorativeoRestores body tissue, works with neuron functioning.oHelps organize info that’s stored throughout the dayGrowthoPituitary gland releases growth hormones°°How Much Sleep?Newborns should sleep 2/3 of 24 hour dayTeens should sleep 8-9 hoursMost adults 6-8 hoursSleep Disorders
InsomniaoHave trouble falling or staying asleepoUsing alcohol or sleeping pills to cure:You’re unconscious, so hardly any REM sleep.oRecommended treatmentRelaxing behavior before bed timeAvoid caffeineExercise regularlyNarcolepsyoLess than five minute episodes where people fall asleep right awayoEasily treatableSleep ApneaoEasily treatable°°DreamsStory LikeoUsually staring yourselfDay residueMostly mundane°°Theories of Dreaming
Sexual Wish Fulfillment (Freud)oManifest contentWhat you see on surfaceoLatent contentWhat it really meansInformation Processing (Cartwright)oThis is the theory (for which we have strong evidence) that dreaming helps to organize information you learn during the day (so that you are better able to remember it later, and consolidate new memories (hook them up with other related memories in your neural networks.