1st midterm- 2nd midterm

1st midterm- 2nd midterm - PHIL 13 / Class 14 - Cognitivism...

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PHIL 13 / Class 14 - Cognitivism and Non-Cognitivism Non- Cognitivism - imply that our ultimate ethical principles depend on our ultimate attitudes and preferences. - Ultimate ethical principles therefore seem to lie within the fields of personal decisions, persuasion, advice and propaganda, but not within the field of academic philosophy. - thinks that claims don't express belief - so smart is not arguing the truth that the utilitarian makes but that utilitarian is emotionally attractive. - Making Utilitarianism Plausible: The fundamental attitude that Smart appeals to in order to make utilitarianism seem plausible is "the disposition to seek happiness . . . good consequences, for all mankind, or perhaps for all sentient beings" (7). Smart calls this an attitude of "generalized benevolence." - Benevolence, the disposition that utilitarianism encourages to seek happiness, good consequences.
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- The Rule-Worship Problem for Deontology Utilitarianism, criticism - utilitarianism might do things that are violation to moral rules(justice, fairness) - utilitarianism will violate someone's right if it means maximizing happiness (i.e. killing of one person vs. killing of 20 people) Deontoligist - a system which does not appeal to the consequences of our actions, but to conformity with certain rules of duty. - They want to promote human welfare, because they see it as a important value. - They conform to a rule to the prevention of avoidable human suffering. - Act-Utilitarianism: "the view that the rightness or wrongness of an action depends only on the total goodness or badness of its consequences, i.e. on the effect of the action on the welfare of all human beings (or perhaps all sentient beings)" (4). - Smart is trying to prove act-utilitarian system. which is normative ethics. - Rule-Utilitarianism:
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"the view that the rightness or wrongness of an action is to be judged by the goodness or badness of the consequences of a rule that everyone should perform the action in like circumstances" (9). - he is ulitmately concerned with human happiness - The Rule-Worship Problem for Rule-Utilitarianism - Rule Utilitarianism are motivated by the act, they desire to maximize happiness - but, sometimes acting to the rules will lead to less happiness. .. - lying: in some cases telling a lie would lead to the best consequences but if she did that she wouldn't be a rule utilitarianism. n it seems irrational. - Does Rule-Utilitarianism collapse into Act- Utilitarianism? - Ought to act so that you have habits that bring about the best consequences - But, for example: having the habit to not kill then probably not going to kill innocent people, but might not kill people when having the possibility to save more people.
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- whatever would leave the act-utilitarian to break a rule would lead the kantian rule- utilitarian to modify the rule - A difficulty for rule utilitarianism has often appeared to be rules like "do not walk on the grass" because sometimes it is beneficial that these rules are broken. - when some exceptions are written into the rule the rule
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1st midterm- 2nd midterm - PHIL 13 / Class 14 - Cognitivism...

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