1 - Blood Class Notes - The Circulatory System Blood Functions and properties of blood Plasma Blood cell production Erythrocytes Leukocytes Hemostasis

1 - Blood Class Notes - The Circulatory System Blood...

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The Circulatory System: Blood Functions and properties of blood Plasma Blood cell production Erythrocytes Leukocytes Hemostasis Blood types Functions of Blood Transports : __O2__ from lungs to organs/cells _CO2__ from cells to lungs __Nutrients___ from digestive system & storage Wastes to liver & kidneys ___Hormones___ Regulates body __Temperature__ (transports heat out to skin) Immunity (white blood cells) Clotting (platelets) Stabilizes water balance Stabilizes _pH_ – buffer for acids & bases Blood Adults have __4-6L__ of blood Blood is a connective tissue More matrix vs cells Blood Components __Plasma__ , a clear extracellular fluid (55% of blood) __Formed elements_(cells)__ - blood cells and platelets Mean erythrocyte (RBCs) count – 4.2-6.2 million/ l Mean leukocyte (WBCs) count – 5,000-10,000/ l Mean platelet (clotting) count – 130,000-400,000/ l Formed Elements of Blood Erythrocytes – red blood cells Leukocytes – white blood cells Granulocytes – have cytoplasmic granules Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulocytes – no cytoplasmic granules
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Lymphocytes (T-cells & B-cells) Monocytes & Macrophages (garbage men of body) Platelets Formed Elements of Blood Hematocrit Centrifuging blood forces formed elements to separate from plasma ____Hematocrit ___ is % of total volume that is __cells___ Erythrocytes are heaviest and settle first 37% to 52% total volume White blood cells & platelets 1% total volume ___Buffy__ coat Plasma 47% to 63% Properties of Blood ___Viscosity____ - resistance to flow (thickness/stickyness) Blood is 4.5-5.5 times more viscous than water Plasma alone is 2 times more viscous than water Too many or too few red blood cells changes the viscosity of blood and puts a strain on the heart __Osmolarity__ - total molar concentration of dissolved particles in 1 L of solution due to transfer of nutrients and wastes between the blood & tissue fluids If too high : bloodstream absorbs too much fluid from the tissues, thus causing hypertension (high BP) If too low : bloodstream transfers too much fluid to tissues, resulting in edema and hypotension (low BP) Plasma and Plasma Proteins 92% _water__ Also contains proteins, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, hormones, lipids, trace elements, gases Serum - plasma minus the clotting proteins Proteins are the most abundant solute in plasma Used for clotting, defense and transport 3 categories of plasma proteins ___Albumins____ are most abundant plasma protein Produced by the liver Contribute to viscosity and osmolarity and influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance Fibrinogen - clotting Globulins (_antibodies_) - immune system defenses Blood Cell Production (Hemopoiesis) Hemopoietic tissues produce formed elements _Red Bone Marrow_ - produces RBCs, WBCs & platelets committed cells are destined to continue down a specific cell line Hemopoietic stem cells multiply continually & are pluripotent (capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines) Differentiate into colony-forming units (CFUs) that give rise to the different formed elements.
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