phylogenetics and systematics

phylogenetics and systematics - Chapter 25 Phylogeny and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics Origin of Earth 4500 History of Life (See Table 26.1) Boundaries between units in the Geologic Time Scale are marked by dramatic biotic change Eras 5 Kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s 5 Kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s gave way to Woese’s 3 Domains 5 Kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s gave way to Woese’s 3 Domains and multiple Kingdoms “Did K ing P hilip C ome O ver F or G umbo S unday?” Panthera = genus pardus = specific epithet that refers to one species in the genus Panthera Taxon (taxa) = the named taxonomic unit(s) at any level in this taxonomic hierarchy Fig. 25.8 Linnaeus convinced us to use a hierarchical classification system Darwin provided us with the mechanism by which evolution results in descent with modification Taxonomy – naming & classifying organisms Systematics – naming & classifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationships Phylogenetics – reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among organisms Systematic Phylogenetics Macroevolution & Phylogeny – hypothesized genealogy traced back to the last common ancestor ( i.e ., the most recent) through hierarchical, dichotomous branching Phylogenetic tree Cladistics – the principles that guide the production of phylogenetic trees, a.k.a., cladograms Macroevolution & Phylogeny Phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, or cladogram Node – branch point, speciation event Macroevolution & Phylogeny Lineage or clade – an entire branch Phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, or cladogram Macroevolution & Phylogeny Lineage or clade – an entire branch Phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, or cladogram Macroevolution & Phylogeny Lineage or clade – an entire branch Phylogenetic tree, phylogeny, or cladogram Macroevolution & Phylogeny A clade is a...
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phylogenetics and systematics - Chapter 25 Phylogeny and...

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