HUMS101 Midterm Guide

HUMS101 Midterm Guide - KEY WORDS HUMS 101b 2007 1...

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KEY WORDS HUMS 101b – 2007 1. Alexander : (356-323BC) He became king of Macedon at age 20 and would become famous in history for his conquests. His empire extended as far east as India. He was very smart, decisive, and quick to anger. He left Persian administrative structure and local rulers in place as he conquered and he presented himself as a Persian king….yet, he also burned the Persian capital (Persepolis). He died very young before he could execute any kind of social policy over his vast empire. Philip of Macedon : Father of Alexander. He was assassinated in 336BC and was succeeded by his son. Created and led the League of Corinth (Greek collective security against the Persians). Roxane : The Bactrian (Persian) wife of Alexander the Great. Alexander encouraged his troops to marry Persian women (just as he had) in order to promote cultural tolerance. Roxane bore Alexander a son (Alexander IV). After his death, Roxane and Alexander IV were protected by Olympias. After the death of Olympias, Cassander had them both assassinated. Olympias : The mother of Alexander. She was said to have kept pet snakes. After the death of Alexander she kept Roxane and Alexander IV under close watch. She wielded a lot of power and was able to have many people killed for political reasons. Ultimately she was put to death for her crimes. Aristotle : Greek philosopher and personal tutor of Alexander. Battle of Granicus (334) : The first of three battles fought between Alexander and the Persian empire. Alexander was victorious; his professional army defeated the Persians and their Greek mercenaries. Battle of Gaugamela (331) : The battle in which Alexander defeated King Darius of Persia. After this, Alexander would declare himself the great king of Persia. Macedonia : the ancient kingdom located in Northern Greece. For a brief period of time under Alexander the Great it was the most powerful entity in the region. Beginning under Philip and continuing under Alexander, Macedonia expanded to include Greece, the Persian empire, Egypt, and the very fringes of India. 2. Cyrus the Great-Leader of Persian empire in 558BC; built an empire in SW of Iran, India, and Mesopotamia in 6 th cent; kept local government in place; not a religious imperialist; created largest political entity ever seen; succeeded by Cambyses Medes-the people of the Persian and Achaemeid Empire; military power based on horseback and archery that defeated flatland people with spears and swords; defeated Asyrians and spread into west, establishing Persian Empire; spoke Aramaic Darius I-Laid foundations for Persian empire; concerned with “Truth” vs. “Lie”; loved “Truth” (loyalty to the king); Persepolis-an ancient ceremonial capital for the Achaemenid Empire that was chosen by Cyrus the Great and built by Darius I Satrap-A governor of a provinces within the Persian Empire who independently ruled within his own areas Ahuramazda-Supreme deity of Zoroastrianism and of the Cult of Mithra; believed in
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HUMS101 Midterm Guide - KEY WORDS HUMS 101b 2007 1...

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