Lecture 5 - Blackboard (7) - PRINCIPLE 7 – FRAMING...

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Unformatted text preview: PRINCIPLE 7 – FRAMING KNOWLEDGE An appropriate framework helps the reader approach and interpret your information in the same way that you do. RELATIONSHIP WITH THE AUDIENCE High-context: One who has been quite involved with the subject or project Low-context: One who has little previous involvement and less familiarity PROBLEMS RELATED TO FRAMING 1. Missing the framing information: Focus on detail without providing any context. 2. Providing inappropriate framing information: Confuse the reader’s attention or create inappropriate expectations. 3. Off ering detail that masquerades as frame: A sentence or paragraph loaded with detail, much of it irrelevant. MISSING FRAMING INFORMATION Common frames include: Purpose statements Definitions Enumerations INAPPROPRIATE FRAMING Inappropriate frames directs the audience’s attention on something other than the real point of the paragraph The frame and the paragraph must fi t together logically Example: page 97 The pencil sharpener will only turn on when the cover is in place. When the cover is in the right position it pushes in a small plastic piece that connects the circuit. The other requirement to complete the circuit is a pencil must be pushed through the hole in the sharpener. When this occurs, the pencil pushes a bell-shaped copper contact open so that the circuit is complete and the sharpening blade can turn. INAPPROPRIATE FRAMING Revised Notes: Appropriate frame focuses the reader’s attention Frame is in the form of a topic sentence Principle of enumeration Two design decisions ensure that the pencil sharpener operates safely. First, the pencil sharpener will only turn on when the cover is in place. When the cover is in Example: page 97 the right position it pushes in a small plastic piece that connects the circuit. Second, to complete the circuit, a pencil must be pushed through the hole in the sharpener. When this occurs, the pencil pushes a bellshaped copper contact open so that the circuit is complete and the sharpening blade can turn. DETAIL MASQUERADING FRAME When writers insert information they think provides context, but because of its detail, it fails to provide a clear focus Example: page 99 The crane in question is one of three used to empty crucibles into the casthouse furnaces. Two of the cranes numbers 37712 and 37711 were manufactured by John T. Hepburn Company as 20 ton cranes in 1968. These cranes were upgraded to 25 tons in 1984 and a third crane was purchased at the time number 37720. DETAIL MASQUERADING FRAME • Notes: • Gives a great deal of information BUT leaves the central question unanswered: which crane failed? The failing crane (37712) is one of three used to empty crucibles into the casthouse furnaces. It and another (37711) were manufactured by John T. Hepburn Company as 20 ton cranes in 1968 but upgraded to handle 25 tons in 1984. The third cranes (37720), purchased at the time of the upgrades, was built to carry 25 tons. IMPLEMENTING FRAMING #1 – Generating the Frame in Terms of Audience Needs Shift from the writer’s to the audience’s need Fore-framing: putting it fi rst and explaining it later Move from what you already know to what your audience needs to know A task for revision IMPLEMENTING FRAMING #2 – Placing the Frame Place the framing information in orientation locations Power Position: the beginning of a document, section, or paragraph IMPLEMENTING FRAMING #3 – Check all orientation locations Check all orientation locations to ensure you have put in framing where you should have Formal Analytical Report Analytical Reports 1. What data, observations, ideas, and background information can we gather about the topic discussed in this report? 2. What inferences can we draw about the individual data? 3. What bottom-line conclusions can we draw? 4. What recommendations stem from our conclusions? Types of Analysis • Evaluate • Recommend • Identify • Assess feasibility http://www.discoverme.com.au/News/NewSEOSiteAnalysisService. aspx Responsibilities • Make the report’s purpose clear • Use an appropriate structure for that purpose • Examine the topic at an appropriate level, and use appropriate language • Ensure that the report is readable, by evaluating it objectively • Write ethically • Forcefully make points • Make the report professional and error-free Typical Analytical Problems Will X Work for a Specific Purpose? • Answer practical questions • Sequence: questions-answers-conclusions • Include recommendations based on your conclusions Has X Worked as Well as Expected? • Use a series of evaluation criteria to assess the performance or value of equipment, facilities, or programs • Apply those criteria after a decision has been made Typical Analytical Problems Is X or Y Better for a Specific Purpose? • Analysis is essential in comparing machines, processes, business locations, computer systems, or the like • Sequence: questions-answers-conclusions • Designed to help the reader make a choice Why Does X Happen? • Analysis follows a problem-causes-solution sequence • Analysis follows this sequence: 1. Identify the problem 2. Examine possible and probably causes, and isolate definite ones. 3. Recommend solutions. Typical Analytical Problems How Can X Be Improved or Avoided? • Focuses on desired results and recommends methods of achieving these results • Identifies causes of a problem or components of a desired result • Presents possible solutions and uses a consistent set of criteria to evaluate each solution in turn • Recommends which solution or combination of solutions to implement Typical Analytical Problems What Are the Effects of X? • Analysis of the consequences of an event or action • Predicts an effect • Sequence: action-probable effects-conclusions and recommendations Is X Practical in This Situation? • Assesses the practicality of an idea or plan • Presents reasons for-reasons against, with both sides supported by evidence Elements of Analysis Clearly Identified Problem or Question • Define your purpose by condensing your approach to a basic question. • Restate the question as a declarative sentence in your statement of purpose. Subordination of Personal Bias • Interpret evidence impartially. • Stick to your evidence. Elements of Analysis – Cont. Accurate and Adequate Data • Do not distort the original data by excluding vital points. ▫ Of all six brands tested, the Bomarc chainsaw proved easiest to operate. It also had the fewest safety features, however. Fully Interpreted Data • Explain the significance of your data. • Interpretation is the heart of the analytical report. ▫ Our cutting crews often work suspended by harness, high above the ground. Also, much work is in remote areas. Safety features therefore should be our first requirement in a chainsaw. Despite its ease of operation, the Bomarc saw does not meet out safety needs. Elements of Analysis – Cont. Valid Conclusions and Recommendations The goal of analysis is to reach a valid conclusion. • Conclusions are valid when they are logically derived from accurate interpretation. • Recommendations are valid when they propose an appropriate response to the problem or question. Express them with assurance and authority! Elements of Analysis – Cont. Clear and Careful Reasoning • Each stage of your analysis requires decisions about what to record, what to exclude, and where to go next. • Remain flexible enough to revise your thinking if contradictory new evidence appears. Appropriate Visuals • Use visuals generously • Graphs: analysis of trends • Tables, charts, photographs, diagrams: comparative analyses General Model • Issue to be examined or overall questions to be answered • Series of supporting questions, which lead to the bottom-line answer • Issue or question is settled in report’s conclusion section http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/02252/conc.htm Parts of a Formal Report Front Matter Body Back Matter Transmittal Letter (13) Cover (14) Title Page (8) Introduction (3) Sources Cited (6) Summary (4) Central Sections (1) Consulted (7) Table of Contents (12) Conclusion (2) List of Illustrations (11) Glossary (9) List of Symbols (9) Acknowledgments (10) Recommendation (2) Appendices (5) Formal Report - Introduction Introduction • Identify the report’s analytical purpose • Preview how that purpose will be achieved • Indirectly set the tone of the report • May require some of all of the following elements: 1. The context, situation, or problem prompting this report (background) 2. Type of data on which the report is based and the type of source 3. Other pertinent theoretical or background information 4. Useful illustrations Formal Report – Body Sections Body Sections • Some reports need just one central section. • Other reports may need several central sections. • Analytical criteria presented in the introduction forms logical structures in the report’s main body. • Use clear, informative headings. Formal Report - Conclusion Conclusion • Answers the questions that sparked the analysis in the first place • Summarize, interpret, and recommend 1. Summary must reflect the body of the report and bottom-line conclusions must be based on information, ideas, and analysis 2. Interpretation must be consistent with the findings in your summary (honest and objective) 3. Recommendations must be consistent with the purpose of the report, the evidence presented, and the interpretations given ...
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