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9 8 - appeal to ignorance-P is not proven false therefore P...

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Sheet1 Page 1 VALID FORMAL ARGUMENTS -P is antecedent -Q is consequent Modus Ponens: affirming the antecedent -If P then Q, P, therefore Q Modus Tollens: denying the consequent -If P then Q, not Q, therefore not P Disjunctive Syllogism -P or Q, not Q, therefore P -P or Q, not P, therefore Q Reductio (ad absurdum) -Assume P -Show an absurdity or contradiction follows -Conclude P must be false Fallacies: Affirming the consequent -If P then Q, Q, therefore P Denying the antecedent -If P then Q, not P, therefore not Q ad homonym -attacking the character instead of the argument
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Unformatted text preview: appeal to ignorance-P is not proven false, therefore P is true Inference: non-deductive support-induction: inference from samples to generalizations-abduction: inference to best explanation Examples:-Induction: everybody who had the chicken so far got sick so probably the next person we check who had the chicken will have gotten sick too-Abduction: everybody who had the chicken so far got sick so probably something about the chicken caused the sickness...
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