ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & STRESS MANAGEMENT Forces of Change There are 6 specific forces stimulating change: 1. Nature of the workforce – is always changing and organizations have to adjust to a multicultural env’t, demographic changes, and outsourcing 2. Technology – continually changing jobs and organizations. 3. Economic shocks 4. Competition 5. Social trends – don’t remain static. Companies must continually adjust products and marketing strategies to be sensitive to changing social trends 6. World politics Planned change - Goals of planned change are that it seeks to: a) Improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment b) Change employee behavior - Change agents are responsible for managing change activities in organizations. They see a future for the organization, are able to motivate, invent and implement this vision. Resistance to change - Can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate. - Responses are preferable than apathy or silence and can indicate that the members are engaged in the process - Change agents can use resistance to modify the change to fit preferences of other members. - Treating resistance as a threat rather than a point of view may increase dysfunctional conflicts. - Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate or deferred. a) Its easy to manage with overt and immediate resistance such as complaints of work slowdowns, b) but harder with implicit or deferred resistance such as loss of loyalty/motivation, increased errors/absenteeism, that are more subtle and difficult to recognize. Individual sources 1. Habit – responding in accustomed ways when confronted with change becomes a source of resistance 2. Security – high need for security because change threatens their feelings of safety 3. Economic factors – changes in job tasks or established work routines arouse economic fears if people won’t be able to perform new tasks to their previous standards 4. Fear of the unknown – change substitutes ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown 5. Selective information processing- individuals select info to process in order to keep perceptions intact.
Organizational sources 1. Structural inertia – organizations have built in mechanisms for stability so when confronted with change this inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability 2. Limited focus of change – org consists of a number of interdependent subsystems and any one can’t be changed without others being affected. Thus limited changes. 3. Group inertia – group norms act as a constraint 4. Threat to expertise – changes in organizational patterns can threaten expertise of specialized groups 5. Threat to established power relationships – redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long established power relationships within the org.
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- Management, Physical exercise, Lewin, B. Communication