chapter 3 - Principles of Public Health Communicable...

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Principles of Public Health Communicable Disease Review
Reasons to Study Communicable Disease New emerging infections are replacing old SARS, Avian Flu, West Nile, Monkeypox, Ebola, Hantavirus, BSE, H1N1, H7N9, Chikungunya fever, MERS, etc.Re-emerging and drug resistant “old” diseases TB, Anthrax, Smallpox, other agents of bioterrorism
Factors that help spread communicable diseaseHuman activities that cause ecological damage and close contact with wildlifeModern agricultural practicesClose contact with animals; soilInternational travelInternational distribution of food and exotic animalsBreakdown of social restraints on sexual behavior and intravenous drug use
Importance of Communicable DiseaseSensitive to social conditions, used as a barometer of the community’s healthKnowledge, most public health information comes from studying communicable disease etiology
Theories of DiseaseSupernaturalHippocraticMiasmaGerm TheoryEpidemiological Triangle
DefinitionsA Communicable disease is one that can be transmitted from one human to another or from animals to humans. (Anthroponoses – diseases for which humans are the only known reservoir)A Zoonosisis a disease or infection that is transmissible from a vertebrate animal to man. Normally it is a disease of animals.
Classification of Diseases & Health ProblemsCommunicable (infectious) vs. Noncommunicable (noninfectious) DiseasesCommunicablecaused by specific biological agent or its product can be transmitted from infected to susceptible hostNon-communicablecannot be transmitted from infected to susceptible hostIdentifying cause is difficult because many factors can contributeAcute vs. Chronic Diseases & IllnessesAcute: last 3 months or less - Can be communicable or noncommunicableChronic: last more than 3 months - Can be communicable or noncommunicable
Classification of Diseases
ZoonosesDiseases transmitted from animals are called zoonotic diseasesCan cause various symptoms such as diarrhea, muscle aches, and feversFoods can be contaminated if animals such as cows and pigs are infected with parasites such as Cryptosporidiumand TrichinellaPeople can acquire trichinellosis by ingesting Trichinella-infected, undercooked meat Cryptosporidiosis can be acquired by people if orchards or water sources near cow pastures become contaminated from infected cows and people consume the fruit without proper washing
ZoonosesRabiesPlagueWest Nile VirusEastern Equine EncephalitisBrucellosisAnthraxTrichinosisRocky Mountain Spotted FeverLyme DiseaseTyphusLeptospirosisQ FeverTularemiaHantavirus
RabiesRabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal The vast majority of rabies cases reported to the CDC each year occur in wild animals like raccoons, skunks,

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Term
Spring
Professor
Busniak
Tags
Epidemiology, communicable disease

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