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Comp Sci 105 - COMPUTER SCIENCE First Real...

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Sheet1 Page 1 COMPUTER SCIENCE First Real Computer-1944-Marc 1-Harvard University DEFINITIONS -Bit-(Binary Digit)-Smallest possible unit of information. It has two values 0 or 1. Can discriminate between two v -Byte-Packet of 8 bits treated as a unit. 256 possible combinations=28 and can represent any integer from 0 to 255. or Any i Bytes can also store characters. -File-Stored group of bytes with a name. -Kilo-in computers means 1024 because they only recognize powers of 2. In computers 1024=2^10 -Mega-In computers means 1, 048,576. In computers equals 2^20 -Giga- 2^30 -Tera-2^40 HOW A COMPUTER WORKS Processor talks to very high speed memory CPU chip asks for a particular byte of info. Asks for an Address Processor finds the information and sends it back to the CPU chip as data. -Random Access Memory-(RAM)-No speed -Read Only Memory - (ROM)-A portion of the memory that can not be changed. Do tasks such as check health of computer and other Basic functions -Disks-Secondary Storage-Much more storage space than Primary Storage (RAM) but But much slower due to mechanical actions. -Operating System-Is a program that does three things in its basic configuration 1. Manages the hardware 2. Allows users to run their own programs 3. Provides a user interface Interfaces come in 2 distinct styles- Transistor -1950hs-Smaller more efficient form of computer than vacuum tubes Multi transistors -1960hs-more than 1 transistor on one piece of silicon When the processor doesnht need info anymore it sends is back to the processor
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Sheet1 Page 2 -CLI-Command Line interface-involves the users having to type in commands at a Command line. <Ex> MS-DOS, UNIX, LINUX Often are verb noun-What the user wants to do and what they want to do it to -GUI-Graphical User Interface-Very easy to use and user friendly. However, requires a Substantial amount of hardware. <Ex> Windows, Mac Often are noun verb-What the user wants to perform the action to, then what they want to do with it. February 5, 2008- Software -When Downloading software from the web, usually save to disk, and save in C to a folder named Net downloads -make brand new folder for program Zip Folders-Can fit much more info than regular folder, and can squeeze it down to a minute size -to use components of a zip, copy them then paste them. -to create a zip folder, right click and select create new zip folder. -DO NOT run a file that you have downloaded until you scan it for viruses. -FILES and ICONS -To open an html file with notepad rather than a browser, right click, open with, select notepad.
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