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142studyguide2008 - STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM SOCI 142...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM: SOCI 142 Definitions You should be able to (1) define these concepts, (2) include their characteristics and functions, (3) provide examples from the reading/lectures to support your definition. Stereotypes – exaggerated, oversimplified image, maintained by prejudiced people, of the characteristics of the group members against whom they are prejudiced. Four Functions of Stereotypes 1. Provides a personal characteristic to a large group 2. Places people in categories 3. Prevents upward mobility 4. Acts as self-fulfilling prophecy In an early study of stereotypes, blacks were considered lazy, superstitious, ignorant, and musical. Even when stereotypes are positive, they always have a negative impact and can lead to discrimination. Recent study shows that there is a consistent contemporary stereotype of blacks and that this stereotype is highly negative in nature; o the use of stereotypes decline with increased education. Individuals maintaining stereotypes often find that their oversimplified assumption offer a more orderly, straightforward analysis of a minority group than a non-stereotyped evaluation would provide. Stereotypes help confirm that a downtrodden group should remain in its lowly position or encourage members of the dominant group to push down minority group individuals who are starting to achieve some economic and political success. Self-fulfilling prophecy – people accept an incorrect definition and act on it to become true o Teacher accepts black stereotype that minority student is lazy and is thus less inclined to help the child learn. Student will recognize the teacher’s disinterest and exert little effort in school, thus confirming teacher’s assumption that minority students are inferior. Institutional Racism – the discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent structures as the political, economic, and education systems. (termed by black panther, Stokely Carmichael/Charles Hamilton (NCAAP activist)) Distinctively sociological, emphasizing that social structure establishes norms guiding people’s behavior. o By accepting the norms maintained in racist structures, individuals perpetuate discriminatory conditions. Impact of inst. racism has dramatically limited many citizen’s chance for success 1
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More dangerous than individual racism because it is less easily subdued because there are no immediate culprits to point to and no easy solutions to resolve it. Most destructive type of inst. racism involves housing. o Received support from journalists, politicians, business people and most citizens; forced blacks to live in restricted areas. o By 1940, the boundaries for modern inner-city ghettoes were established in the northern and Midwestern cities.
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