Psych Vocab Mods 1-6 - Empiricism the view that(a knowledge...

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Empiricism- the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment. Structuralism- an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Functionalism- a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function (how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish) Psychology- the science of behavior and mental processes Nature-Nurture Issue- the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors Natural Selection- the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Basic Research- pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied Research- scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Clinical Psychology- a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatry- a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy Hindsight Bias- the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon ) Critical Thinking- thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions Theory- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis- a testable prediction, often implied by a theory Operational Definition- a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
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Replication- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extent to other participants and circumstances Case Study- an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Survey- a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them False Consensus Effect- the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Population- all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does
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Psych Vocab Mods 1-6 - Empiricism the view that(a knowledge...

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