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Politics notes 11.13.06 - activity brought by...

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Politics notes 11.13.06 Judicial Review: Power of courts (especially Supreme Court) to invalidate or declare unconstitutional laws passed by the legislature or the acts of the executive branch. Adjudication (legal proceedings): 95% takes place at state and local vs federal level. Jurisdiction (2 types): - Original: authority of court to hear and see evidence for the first time and decide guilt or innocence - Appellate: appeal process, to review court procedures and decision, but not guilt. Juries (2 types): - grand Jury : gather information, decide if enough evidence to hold suspect for trial -petit jury: “trial jury” as seen on TV, decides guilt or innocence Legal Cases (2types): - Criminal: involves physical behavior, violation of law: the state vs accused; court decides guilt or innocence (beyond reasonable doubt) & punishment, infringement on life or liberty - Civil:
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Unformatted text preview: activity, brought by ‘plaintiff’ not state, and court decides based on ‘preponderance’ of evidence, not guilt beyond reasonable doubt Law (3 types ): US law based on old English ‘Common Law’, (precedent)-Constitutional: written down in Constitution-Statutory: made by Congress / legislature, written down in statues-Administrative: made by bureaucracy, ‘rules with the force of law’ Courts Enforce Two ‘Concepts of Justice’ (have 2 jobs):-Protect society from criminals (TDCJ)-Protect accused from the government (‘Due Process’) Criminals: typically young (30%), male (80%), minority (60%)… poor (of all races), under-educated (70% score less than 8 th grade level) and drug related (80%) Punishment, deterrents, isolation, and rehabilitation...
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