A&P 1 md 6 slides.pdf - Module 06 Nervous System Overview...

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Module 06NervousSystem OverviewAnatomy and Physiology I
Nervous System OverviewNervous TissueReflex ArcsAction PotentialsNeurotransmitters and Synapses
Nervous TissueAnatomy & Physiology I
Objectives10/3/20214Identify the components to the nervous systemDefine the terms afferent and efferentCompare and contrast the CNS and PNSDescribe the functions of the nervous systemCompare and contrast the function of the neurogliaIdentify and describe the function of the anatomicalcomponents to a neuronCompare and contrast grey and white matterLabel neurons accordingly to their function andstructure
Nervous System:OverviewNervous system influences and/or controls everythought, action and emotionComposed of nerves which are NEURON cellsNeurons communicate by electrical and chemicalsignals with other neurons and cells of the bodyExtremely rapid and cause immediate responsesNervous system is divided into 2 divisions:Central nervous systemPeripheral nervous system10/3/20215
Nervous System:DivisionsCentral Nervous System (CNS)Brain and spinal cordIntegration centerPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)Everything else; spinal and peripheral nervesAfferent (sensory) divisionEfferent (motor) divisionAfferent and Efferent both have visceral and somaticbranchesAutonomic nervous system is branch of efferent visceralParasympathetic nervous systemSympathetic nervous system10/3/20216
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Nervous System:Function3 Basic functions that overlap:Sensory inputAfferent division of PNSNeural integrationCNS acts as the control centerMotor outputEfferent division of PNSNormal and abnormal function of the nervoussystem corresponds to these three functions10/3/20218
Three Steps to Nervous System10/3/20219Input(Sensing)Integration/ProcessingResponding(Output)
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Nerve Tissue:OverviewMain cell within the nervous system is the NEURONNeurons (aka nerve cells) are the functional andstructural unit of the nervous systemConduct nerve impulses (aka action potentials) from areaof the body to anotherFound in the CNS and PNSSurrounding neurons are neuroglia cells (glia cells)Neuroglia cells protect, support and assist thefunction of neuron cells6 different types of neuroglia cells (4 in CNS; 2 in PNS)Outnumber neurons 10:110/3/202112
Nerve Tissue:CNS Neuroglia cellsAstrocytes:Support/brace neurons and connect them to capillaries togain nutrientsMicroglial cells:Act as an immune cell and assist damaged/dying neuronsEpendymal cells:Help form the blood-brain barrierOligodendrocytes:Form myelin (fatty) sheaths around the axons of neuronsin CNS10/3/202113
Nerve Tissue:PNS Neuroglia cellsSatellite cellsSurround cell body of neuronAssist with connecting PNS neurons to capillaries to gainnutrientsSchwann cellsFrom myelin sheaths around axons in the PNSSimilar in function to the oligodendrocytes10/3/202114
Nerve Tissue:CNS Neuroglia cells10/3/202115
Nerve Tissue:Neuron

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