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BONES AND BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUESSKELETAL TISSUESChapter 6Chapter 6
Learning Objectives1.Describe the unifying features of cartilage and list and compare and contrast the three different types of cartilage and state where each is found in the body. (5-6)2.Be able to distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton. Compare and contrast the four bone classes (by shape) and provide examples of each class. (7-9)3.List and describe important functions of bone tissue. (10)4.Distinguish between the two different bone textures and state where each type is generally found in the body. (12)5.Describe the gross structure of a long bone and be able to identify/define the diaphysis, epiphysis, medullary cavity, metaphysis, epiphyseal plate, articular cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone, periosteum and endosteum and compare it to the structure of flat and irregular bones. (13-16)6.Define bone marrow and distinguish among red, and yellow bone marrow. (17)7.Explain the basic functional importance of bone markings. (18-20)8.Distinguish between the different types of cells in bone (osteogenic cell, osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast) and be able to state the appearance and function of each stage of the cell. (21-23)9.Bone tissue is arranged in two distinct patterns to serve two different functions. The two types are compact bone and spongy bone. Describe the microscopic arrangement for each, where it is located, and the general function of each.(24-27)10.Trace the path of nutrient through compact bone. Be sure to name the structures the blood vessels pass through from entry into the bone all the way to an inner osteocyte in a lacuna within the bone. Compare this to the process of nutrient diffusion in spongy bone. (16, 26)
Learning Objectives11.Describe the chemical composition of bone tissue including the organic and inorganic components and the function(s) of each. (28)12.Differentiate between the two types of ossification based on the framework they use to build the bone, the steps involved in bone formation, the embryological age the process begins and the bones formed from the process. (29-37)13.Describe the growth of bone at the epiphyseal plate during adolescence. Be sure to describe the six zones of the epiphyseal plate and how they lead to the formation of bone from cartilage. (39-40)14.Explain what occurs during puberty causing the epiphyseal plate to transition into an epiphyseal line. (41)15.Define appositional growth and explain the role of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts in this type of bone growth. (42-44)16.Explain how bones are remodeled and the role that both osteocyte and osteoblasts play in this remodeling. (46-48)17.Describe the homeostatic mechanism (stimulus, receptor/control center, effector, and targets) for the hormones parathyroid hormone, calcitriol (acts like a hormone) and calcitonin. (49-54)18.Define a bone fracture and describe the different types of fractures. (55-56)19.Describe the process of bone repair. In your description be sure to state and explain the four steps of bone repair. (57-62)20.Explain the homeostatic imbalances of the skeleton system: osteomalacia, rickets, and osteoporosis. (63-66)