BIG ONE - Submitted by CARL ALEXIS(AAC5213 on 10:39:05 AM Points Awarded Points Missed Percentage 15.0 0 0.00 100 1 The US government and most other

BIG ONE - Submitted by CARL ALEXIS(AAC5213 on 10:39:05 AM...

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Unformatted text preview: Submitted by CARL, ALEXIS (AAC5213) on 9/7/2012 10:39:05 AM Points Awarded Points Missed Percentage 15.0 0 0.00 100 % 1. The US government, and most other governments of the world, provides support for scientists but not for astrologers, palm readers, or telephone “psychics”. Why do governments support scientists? A) Scientists learn the Truth, and governments are always deeply committed to learning the truth. B) Scientists use a careful method, and governments are always committed to supporting the use of careful methods. C) Scientists help humans do useful things, which makes the humans healthier, wealthier, etc., and governments often like to support health and wealth. D) Scientists are amazingly sexy, and government functionaries simply cannot control themselves in the presence of such overwhelming sexiness and throw money at the scientists (sometimes tucking tens and twenties into the pockets of the scientists’ lab coats). E) Scientists all drink Diet Pepsi because they think it makes them look sexy, and governments are all controlled by the powerful Pepsi Corporation and so the governments support the Diet-Pepsi-drinking scientists. 2. The best description of a scientist’s job is that she or he: A) Invents new ideas, and proves that some ideas are True. B) Invents new ideas, and shows that some ideas are false. C) Uses the scientific method to learn the Truth. D) Uses only high-tech equipment. E) Is always sexy. 3. The great scientist Alfred Wegener proposed that continents have moved, while other scientists such as T.C. Chamberlin argued against Wegener. Wegener’s ideas eventually won, and are now widely accepted, because: A) Wegener’s ideas were more beautiful, and so were favored by the intellectual elite. B) Wegener’s ideas did a better job of predicting the results of new observations and experiments. C) Wegener’s ideas appealed to dead white European males, whereas Chamberlin’s didn’t. D) Wegener’s ideas appalled dead white European males, and we all know that in this politically correct era, dead white European males cannot get a fair shake. E) Wegener won the Nobel prize. 4. Science professors teach certain theories and not others (Newton’s physics, and not Aristotle’s, or Darwin’s evolution and not Lamarck’s). If you were to ask the professors why, a majority would tell you (more or less; not using exactly these words but with this meaning): A) “Nature has repeatedly been asked (through experiment) which is better, and we are teaching the ones that made successful predictions, and not teaching the ones that failed.” B) “Hey, I’m the professor, shut up.” C) “Lamarck and Aristotle are so right-wing, and you know all of us professors are part of a vast left-wing conspiracy.” D) “Lamarck and Aristotle are so left-wing, and you know all of us professors are part of a vast right-wing conspiracy cleverly dressed up to look like a vast left-wing conspiracy.” E) “Well, we have to teach something in exchange for all those wads of cash you students pay, and this is more fun.” 5. Your boss has assigned you to get the low-down on the latest wonderdrug, and to be darn sure to get it right. You would be wise to consult: A) The Wikipedia; everything they publish is up-to-date. B) The web site of the manufacturer of the wonder drug; they know more about it than anyone else does. C) The article in the Journal of the American Medical Society, a peer-reviewed scientific journal, reporting on the discovery and testing of the drug. D) The New York Times article quoting the discoverer of the drug on how wonderful it is. E) The web site in the email you received with the subject line “Grow your ***** naturally with new wonder drug”. 6. Before they can be published, scientific papers must be peer-reviewed. This means that: A) Some other scientific experts read the papers and guarantee that they are True. B) Some other scientific experts read the papers and provide quality control by eliminating many mistakes. C) An editor reads the papers, to make sure that all the semicolons are in the correct places. D) Everyone in the world is given the opportunity to comment on the papers through a specially maintained blog. E) Government bureaucrats read the papers, to be sure that the papers do not insult the political positions of the current officeholders. 7. The Earth is layered. Most geologists believe that this layering originated primarily because: A) The Earth partially or completely melted soon after it formed, and the denser materials fell to the center. B) The Earth has been separating bit-by-bit for billions of years as the cold oceanic slabs sink all the way to the center and pile up. C) The denser material fell together from space first, and then the lessdense material fell in later. D) The Moon flew out of the Earth after a great collision with a Mars-sized body, causing the Earth to spin faster and separate. E) The nine Supreme Court justices decreed that it separate, so, afraid of being arrested for breaking the law, it did. 8. Geologists get to play with chemistry, physics, biology… and history! And what a history you will meet as you work your way through the course. Starting at the beginning, the textbook provides the scientifically accepted start of the story… and promises that you’ll get to explore some of the evidence for that scientific view, later in the semester. Meanwhile, which is more nearly correct of the scientifically accepted view? A) The Earth formed when the Big Bang caused older materials to fall together, about 14 billion years ago. B) The Earth formed from the falling together of older materials, about 4.6 billion years ago. C) The Earth formed in the Big Bang, about 6000 years ago. D) The Earth is eternal, having been here forever and promising to be here forever. E) The Earth was assembled by gigantic space beavers, which gnawed down the primordial tree of life and piled its branches together to form the planet. 9. National Parks are: A) An invention of Greenlandic people, who set aside the northeastern part of the island as the world’s first national park. B) An invention of the United States that has spread around much of the world, as a way of protecting some of the finest parts of the world. C) An invention of the Romans, to overcome the “tragedy of the commons” that caused them to invade the food-service buildings of the neighboring Greeks. D) An invention of the United States, which has been routinely ignored by the rest of the world because they really don’t like us. E) A U.S. government program to provide roller-coaster rides for disadvantaged grandparents. 10. You find two neutral atoms. Each has 8 protons in its nucleus, but one has 7 neutrons, and the other has 8 neutrons. It is correct to state that: A) The two atoms are from two different elements. B) The two atoms are from the same element, but are different ions of that element. C) The two atoms are from the same element, but are different isopleths of that element. D) The two atoms are from the same element, but are different isotopes of that element. E) The two atoms are from the same cola, but presented in different packaging. 11. We speak of elements, such as gold, or oxygen, or iron. If you got some gold, and started dividing it into smaller and smaller pieces, the smallest piece that would still be called "gold" would be: A) An atom. B) A proton. C) A quark. D) An electron. E) A neutron. 12. Ignoring good manners, you start rooting around in the nucleus of a poor, unsuspecting atom, to see what is in there. What are you most likely to find? A) Only protons. B) Protons, usually with some neutrons hanging around among the protons. C) Protons, usually with some electrons hanging around among the protons. D) Neutrons, usually with some electrons hanging around among the neutrons. E) Only neutrons. 13. The law that established Yellowstone as the first national park: A) Clearly was written by politicians running for reelection, because it required that the parks make people happy today even if things are damaged for the future. B) Was written to help people today and in the future, by requiring that the parks provide enjoyment today while preserving the parks for the future. C) Was written by socialists, because it mentions the word “society”. D) Was written by communists, because park rangers have installed commodes in commodious outhouses. E) Clearly was written by political conservatives, because it required conservation of the parks even if that means locking people out today 14. Human population continues to grow. Looking at many of the things we use on Earth (farmland and land for wood and other things, fish in the sea, etc.): A) We use almost all of the dilithium crystals for our warp drives. B) Our use is large but not everything; we are approaching use of half of all that is available. C) We use almost everything, 99% or more, so we're in deep doo-doo for the future. D) We use less than 1% or so, the tiniest bit, with vast amounts out there in the wilderness somewhere. E) We use almost all of the Diet Pepsi springs but with huge natural reserves of Diet Coke. 15. Geology departments are seeing a lot of recruiters recently, because geology is an in-demand major. Which of the following is NOT a job that geologists commonly end up doing? A) Educator or teacher. B) Packaging substandard mortgages into “securities” and trying to sell them to unsuspecting people. C) Exploring for oil, coal, gas, diamonds, gold, or other valuable things. D) Helping people use knowledge of the Earth to make wise decisions. E) Helping people avoid landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters. ! Practice Quiz #1 - ( 5 Questions) Your response has been submitted successfully. Points Awarded 5 Points Missed 0 Percentage 100% Block A - All Questions 1. Ignoring good manners, you start rooting around in the nucleus of a poor, unsuspecting atom, to see what is in there. What are you most likely to find? A. Only protons. B. Neutrons, usually with some electrons hanging around among the neutrons. C. Protons, usually with some electrons hanging around among the protons. D. Only neutrons. E. Protons, usually with some neutrons hanging around among the protons. The simplest nucleus is the single proton in “ordinary” hydrogen. All other nuclei include protons and neutrons. Electrons make the cloud around the nucleus. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: E Your Response: E 2. The final arbitrator between two alternate theories (for example Aristotle’s and Newton’s ideas) is: A. The Nobel Prize Committee in Stockholm, Sweden. B. Nature, and experiments conducted to test each idea. C. A committee of "wise men" who gather twice a year to arbitrate such disputes. D. A public opinion poll conducted by Gallup, ABC News, and Fox News. Unlike painting or literature, scientific inquiry has a well-defined procedure for figuring out if Newton's ideas are better or if Aristotle had it right all along. In looking at a painting, we can ask different people what they think, or we can make up our own mind on whether we like it or not, and that is perfectly valid. In science, we have to ask: does the idea fit with the way the world works? Can I predict the speed of a falling object better using Newton's ideas or Aristotle's? As it turns out, Aristotle’s ideas didn’t predict things very well, and Newton’s did. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: B Your Response: B 3. Opinion polls show most residents of the US do not believe they understand science very well, but they do favor more government support of science. Why do most US residents favor government support of science? A. Science is so boring that almost everyone uses public-broadcasting science programming as a sleep aid, and government funding is needed to insure a steady supply of boredom. B. Science is simply so fascinating that almost everyone can’t wait to see what will be discovered next. C. Scientists apply their scientific method, which allows them to learn the Truth. D. Science has helped make our lives healthier, wealthier, easier, safer, etc., and people hope that more funding of more science will provide even more health, wealth, ease, safety, etc. E. Scientists are so breath-takingly sexy that most people are drawn through sheer carnal lust to support the scientific enterprise. Without science and technology, the great majority of us would be dead, so we tend to be supporters of science. Although we know that science works, we’re never sure that it is completely right. Students so often discover things that professors missed, or that professors got wrong, that scientists would be silly to claim Truth. Comparing the TV ratings of the latest hit to the ratings of the latest science program on public broadcasting shows that many Americans are not fascinated by science, but the science-show ratings are above zero, so some people are fascinated by science. And hope as we might, it is unfortunately clear that not every scientist is sexy (just most of them are…). Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: D 4. In chemistry, the type of an atom (what element it is) is determined by: A. The number of protons it contains in its nucleus. B. The number of neutrons it contains in its nucleus. C. The number of neutrons it has in a cloud around the nucleus. D. The number of protons it has in a cloud around the nucleus. E. The number of electrons it exchanges with its neighbors. Physicists change the name when the number of charged, massive protons in the nucleus changes. Adding one proton makes a HUGE difference to how an atom behaves, and so deserves a new name. The neutrons hang around in the nucleus to keep the protons from kicking each other out. Exchanging electrons is important, but doesn’t change the element type. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: A Your Response: A 5. What is more accurate about the Earth? A. The Earth is formed of flat, vertical layers; one runs from the North Pole to the South Pole, and then others are layered on to the sides of that. B. The Earth is homogeneous; when it melted, it got all mixed up. C. The Earth is formed of concentric layers (something like an onion--a central ball with a shell around it, and a shell around that…); when the planet melted, it separated into layers. D. The Earth is formed of flat, horizontal layers, a little cap at the South Pole, then a layer above that, and a layer above that, all the way up to a little cap at the North Pole. E. The Earth is formed of concentric layers (something like an onion--a central ball with a shell around it, and a shell around that…), but with a giant hole on one side where the moonmaking collision blasted pieces off. The planet is onion-like, with an inner core, then an outer core, a mantle (which has several sublayers), and a crust. The moon-making collision did happen, but the planet got hot enough to separate again. The planet separated after melting largely or completely, with the densest stuff falling to the center and the lowest-density stuff floating to the top. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: C Your Response: C Continue Contact Penn State ANGEL Support ©2006 ANGEL Learning, Inc. All rights reserved. RockOn #1 Your response has been submitted successfully. Points Awarded 12 Points Missed Percentage 0 100% 1. Scientists receive government funding primarily because: A. They are all sexy. B. They help humans do useful things. C. They learn the Truth. D. They all drink Diet Pepsi because they think it makes them look sexy. E. They use a careful method. The government is often interested in seeing people live longer, or improving the economy, or having better and more-accurate explosive devices for the military, or in many other things that improve our lives, and science plus engineering and scientific medicine are better than any other human activity at delivering these. A cynic might say that politicians are often not all that interested in finding the Truth. And a realist would note that science is being improved all the time, and because you cannot improve on the Truth, science has not (yet?) learned the Truth. There are many methods in the world, some of them are careful, and many of them are not funded by the government. Some of our spouses or significant others may think that some scientists are sexy, but many other sexy persons are not funded by the government. One of the professors has been known to drink a competitor of Pepsi on occasion, and some scientists refrain from soft drinks entirely. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: B Your Response: B 2. The best description of a scientist’s job is that she or he: A. Is always sexy. B. Invents new ideas, and shows that some ideas are false. C. Uses only high-tech equipment. D. Uses the scientific method to learn the Truth. E. Invents new ideas, and proves that some ideas are True. Much of the fun in science is coming up with great new ideas (hypotheses, if you like fancy words). But for your new idea to “win”, you have to show that it does better than old ideas, so you have to prove those old ideas false (or incomplete, or not-quite-right, or whatever “nice” word you might prefer). The scientific method is a powerful way for humans to learn to do things, and learn what does and doesn’t work, but the results of science are always open to improvement, so are not claimed to be Truth, and probably are not Truth. Some scientists still use pencils and look at things, and there are probably a few non-sexy scientists around somewhere. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: B Your Response: B 3. The final arbitrator between two alternate theories (for example Aristotle’s and Newton’s ideas) is: A. A committee of "wise men" who gather twice a year to arbitrate such disputes. B. A public opinion poll conducted by Gallup, ABC News, and Fox News. C. Nature, and experiments conducted to test each idea. D. The Nobel Prize Committee in Stockholm, Sweden. Unlike painting or literature, scientific inquiry has a well-defined procedure for figuring out if Newton's ideas are better or if Aristotle had it right all along. In looking at a painting, we can ask different people what they think, or we can make up our own mind on whether we like it or not, and that is perfectly valid. In science, we have to ask: does the idea fit with the way the world works? Can I predict the speed of a falling object better using Newton's ideas or Aristotle's? As it turns out, Aristotle’s ideas didn’t predict things very well, and Newton’s did. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: C Your Response: C 4. When scientists agree that a particular scientific theory is a good one, and the scientists use that theory to help make new things, cure diseases, etc., that "agreement" came about because: A. That's what it says in all the books. B. A single, well-respected scientist put forward the idea. C. The Nobel prize committee gave the inventor of the idea a lot of money. D. A number of different experiments by different people all had outcomes that were wellpredicted by the theory. E. A single experiment had an outcome that was well-predicted by that theory. Agreement on scientific theories is a contentious, drawn-out, and sometimes acrimonious business. Scientists are no better (and no worse!) than everybody else: we think we are right and those who disagree with us are dunderheads! I put forward my idea, and the experiments that I did that show the idea is a good one... then everybody else piles on and pooh-poohs my idea. BUT, they go out and do experiments that try and show my ideas are wrong... and they can't do it! So eventually all those experiments accumulate, and finally people agree that my idea is a good one. (Sometimes accompanied by a sneer: "...but of course I knew that all along. I just didn't bother to publicize it..." I told you, scientists are no better and no worse than the rest of the world.) Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: D 5. Which is more likely to contain relia...
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