WK4AssignmentDanielCourtney - Running head ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT Asthma and Stepwise Management Walden University NURS-6521N-9 Advanced

WK4AssignmentDanielCourtney - Running head ASTHMA AND...

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Running head: ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT 1 Asthma and Stepwise Management Walden University NURS-6521N-9 Advanced Pharmacology September 27, 2015 Courtney D. Daniel
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ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT 2 Asthma and Stepwise Management Asthma is a critical illness that is often under estimated in its ability to become deadly if not managed appropriately. According to Holt (2009), asthma effects more than 22 million Americans, and affecting an estimated 6 million children. Arcangelo and Peterson (2013) defines asthma as a chronic inflammatory illness of the airways characterized by airway obstruction, inflammation, and hyper-responsiveness. The purpose of this paper is to describe the variance between short and long term treatment options for those with asthma, review the stepwise approach of treatment and management of asthma, and how stepwise management provides assistance to health care providers. Long-Term Control vs. Quick Relief Options There are several things that take place prior to the diagnosis of asthma, including a physical exam, health history, current symptoms, chest X-ray, and measurement of airflow obstruction (Thomas, 2015). Treatment options and will be discussed and a personalized management plan can then be initiated. “Asthma medications are categorized into two general classes: long-term control medications (also known as preventive or maintenance medications), which are taken regularly to achieve and maintain control of persistent asthma, and rapid-acting drugs (also known as rescue medications) taken as needed to provide prompt reversal of acute airflow limitation and relieve bronchospasm” (Conner & Buck, 2013). The two most common quick-relief medications for the treatment of asthma exacerbations are inhaled bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Inhaled rescue bronchodilators are also known as short-acting B2-adrenergic agonists (SABAs) and work to provide relief of bronchoconstriction by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and functionally enlarging the luminal diameter of the airways (Conner & Buck, 2013). These
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ASTHMA AND STEPWISE MANAGEMENT 3 work to decrease airflow obstruction so that breathing becomes less labored with relief from an acute bronchospasm in approximately 5–10 minutes. Common medications in this category
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