Asian Philosophy LECTURE1Philosophy - Comes from Greek "love of wisdom"Fundamental Principles and conceptsMeta physics - study of realityEpistemology - theory of knowledgeLogic - study of reasoning Value theory - study of value•Ethics - right or wrong, good or bad•Aesthetic beautyPhilosophy of ....Western vs. eastern philosophy•Western tends to be more compartmentalized; Eastern tends to be holistic - how people should or should not do sth•Western philosophy tends to be abstract; Asian: practical•Western: absolutes; Asians: context LECTURE 2Some basic history:2205 - 1766 BCE: Xia Dynasty1766 - 1122 BCE: Shang Dynasty•Information from this period comes from writings on tortoise shells, bones, etc.•World full of spirits, who could be contracted. acted as mediums to "Shang Di" - "The Lord on High"•Many of these spirits were our ancestors. So, a huge emphasis on connecting to the past1
1122 - 256 BCE: Zhou Dynasty•Worshipped Tian•They introduced the notion of Tianming - "Heaven's mandate"-this starts a sort of "naturalization" in Zhou thought-Naturalization in this context means moving away from spirits; moving towards a systematic explanation of phenomena•This naturalization opens the quest for knowledge up to everyone •771 BCE: King You screws up. Thus ends the western dynasty.-The Moral of King You: Direct connection between moral decay and societaldownfall403 - 221 BCE: Warring States Period•Characterized by fractured, warring states•Much of Chinese philosophy flourished during this period•Trying to answer the question: How can we bring peace ad stability back to society770 - 221 BCE - Hundreds Schools of Thoughts Period•Confucianism: 5th century BCE (Kongzi孔孔)•Daoism: 4th century BCE (Laozi孔孔)•Mohism: 4th century (Mozi孔孔) Universal Love•Legalism: 5th century (Han Feizi 孔孔孔) - strong government, hash punishment•Yangism: 5th century (孔孔孔孔)•School of Names (孔孔孔孔): 4 centurySimilarity to Watch for in All of these Views:1) There is some feature of experience that we are not paying appropriate attention2) Because we don't recognize #1, our lives are troubled.3) There is a way to escape these problems4) Taking this advice will make your life better than it would be otherwise5) Everyone has the ability to make life better221 - 207 BCE: Qin Dynasty•Short lived dynasty, based o legalist principles206 - 8 CE: Earlier Han DynastyMEANWHILE: In IndiaStart in the Indus Valley:•1700 BCE - Sanskrit starts to dominate as the language of choice This leads to the first written religious texts of this period, the Vedas.2
(Power in the words)For examples, Rig Veda: written around 1500 BCE•800 - 400 BCE: Early Upanishads Focus more explicitly on philosophical problems•400-200 BCE: The Epic PeriodThis sets up a particular strong philosophical tradition, marked by self-knowledge.