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The Progressive Era

The Progressive Era - The Progressive Era 1901-1918 1...

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The Progressive Era, 1901-1918 1. Progressivists a. Their ideas and work became known as progressivism, because they wanted to build on the existing society, making moderate political changes and social improvements through government action b. Goals of limiting the power of big business, improving democracy for the people, and strengthening social justice 2. Origins of Progressivism a. Attitudes and Motives i. Who were the Progressives? 1. Citizens in the Progressive movement were chiefly middle- class residents ii. What was the Progressives’ Philosophy 1. Charles Darwin, in his Origin of Species, presented the concept of evolution, which had an impact ell beyond simply justifying the accumulation of wealth 2. Pragmatism or common sense 3. William James and John Dewey were two leading American advocates of this new philosophy iii. Scientific Management 1. Frederick W. Taylor a. By using a stopwatch to time the output of factory workers, Taylor discovered ways of organizing people in the most efficient manner—the scientific management system b. The Muckrakers i. Origins 1. Henry Lloyd, who wrote Atlantic Monthly which attacked the practices of the Standard Oil Company and the railroads 2. Lloyd’s Wealth Against Commonwealth fully exposed the corruption and greed of the oil monopoly but failed to suggest how to control it ii. Magazines 1. Samuel Sidney McClure, McClure’s magazine iii. Books 1. Jacob Riis, one of the first photojournalists, published How the Other half Lives 2. Lincoln Steffen, The Shame of the Cities 3. Theodore Dreiser, The Financier and The Titan 4. Frank Norris, The Octopus and The Pit iv. Decline of Muckraking 1. Writers found it more and more difficult to top the sensationalism of the last story
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2. Publishers were expanding and faced economic pressures from banks and advertisers to tone down their treatment of business 3. By 1910, corporations were becoming more aware of their public image and developing a new specialty: the field of public relations 3. Political Reforms in Cities and States a. Voter Participation i. Australian, or secret, ballot 1. Issuing ballots printed by the state and requiring voters to mark their choices secretly within the privacy of a curtained booth ii. Direct Primaries 1. This method for nominating party candidates by majority voted was known as the direct primary iii. Direct Election of U.S. Senators 1. In 1913, adoption of the 17 th Amendment required that all U.S. senators be elected by popular vote iv. Initiative, referendum, and recall 1. The initiative a. A method by which voters could compel the legislature to consider a bill 2. The referendum a. A method that allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws printed on their ballots 3.
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The Progressive Era - The Progressive Era 1901-1918 1...

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