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The Civil War - The Civil War 1861-1865 The War Begins...

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The Civil War, 1861-1865 The War Begins - Lincoln assured southerners that he had no intention of interfering with slavery or any other southern institution - At the same time, he warned, no state had the right to break up the Union - Fort Sumter o Use of executive power Lincoln often used his power without the authorization or approval of Congress. Calling for 75,000 volunteers to put down the “insurrection” in the South Authorizing spending for the war Suspending the privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus - Secession of the Upper South o Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas o Capitol was moved to Richmond, Virginia o West Virginia remained loyal to the Union and separated from Virginia in 1863 - Keeping the Border States in the Union o Four slave states Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky - Wartime Advantages o Military South Defensive war Had to move supplies a short distance Long shoreline was hard to blockade North A large number of the 800,000 immigrants enlisted in the Union army Emancipation brought over 180,000 blacks to the army U.S. Navy o Economic North 85% of the factories and manufactured goods Over 70% of the railroads 65% of the farmlands South Depended on the overseas demand of cotton o Political In order to win the war, the South needed a strong central government with strong public support (the South had neither) - The Confederate States of America o Faced a serious shortage of money o Had a large inflation on money o Constitution Six year term for president and vice president and presidential item veto Prohibit the foreign slave trade Denied the Confederate congress the power to levy a protective tariff and to appropriate internal improvements
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First Years of a Long War: 1861-1862 - First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) o First major battle o Attack Confederate forces positioned near Bull Run Creek at Manassas Junction, Virginia o Confederate reinforcements under Stonewall Jackson sent Union troops back to Washington o The battle ended the thought of a short war - Union Strategy (By Winfield Scott) o Use the U.S. navy to blockade southern ports and thereby cut off essential supplies from reaching the South o
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