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Unformatted text preview: The Civil War, 1861-1865 The War Begins- Lincoln assured southerners that he had no intention of interfering with slavery or any other southern institution- At the same time, he warned, no state had the right to break up the Union- Fort Sumter o Use of executive power Lincoln often used his power without the authorization or approval of Congress. • Calling for 75,000 volunteers to put down the “insurrection” in the South • Authorizing spending for the war • Suspending the privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus- Secession of the Upper South o Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas o Capitol was moved to Richmond, Virginia o West Virginia remained loyal to the Union and separated from Virginia in 1863- Keeping the Border States in the Union o Four slave states Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky- Wartime Advantages o Military South • Defensive war • Had to move supplies a short distance • Long shoreline was hard to blockade North • A large number of the 800,000 immigrants enlisted in the Union army • Emancipation brought over 180,000 blacks to the army • U.S. Navy o Economic North • 85% of the factories and manufactured goods • Over 70% of the railroads • 65% of the farmlands South • Depended on the overseas demand of cotton o Political In order to win the war, the South needed a strong central government with strong public support (the South had neither)- The Confederate States of America o Faced a serious shortage of money o Had a large inflation on money o Constitution Six year term for president and vice president and presidential item veto Prohibit the foreign slave trade Denied the Confederate congress the power to levy a protective tariff and to appropriate internal improvements First Years of a Long War: 1861-1862- First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) o First major battle o Attack Confederate forces positioned near Bull Run Creek at Manassas Junction, Virginia o Confederate reinforcements under Stonewall Jackson sent Union troops back to Washington o The battle ended the thought of a short war- Union Strategy (By Winfield Scott) o Use the U.S. navy to blockade southern ports and thereby cut off essential supplies from reaching Use the U....
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