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Unformatted text preview: Review Direct Democracy- requires that all citizens meet together regularly to debate and decide the issues of the day- Was possible in 5 th Century Athens because of the small size of the city- Male citizens had time to meet and deliberate because women provided household labor, and slaves accounted for most production- Is ideal for democracy- Democracy in large societies must take the representative form, since millions of citizens cannot meet in open assembly New Jersey Plan:- William Paterson- Increased Congresss power to tax and to regulate trade- Unicameral assembly- Each state received one vote in Congress under policy of equal representation- Favored small states Anti-federalists- Opposed the constitution- Opposition based on fear of centralized power and concern about the absence of a bill of rights- Wanted to leave the government under the Articles of Confederation- They argued that the strong national government proposed by the Federalists was a threat to the rights of individuals and that the President would become a king. McCulloch v. Maryland- The state of Maryland attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.- Maryland imposes a $15,000 tax to any bank that was not created by the state- The Bank owner refused to pay the tax- The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government- that state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government. - Congress can use the Elastic Clause- State cannot tax a national institution Categorical Grants- Grants are voluntary- Because states cannot generally afford to give up federal money, they have to accept the conditions- Civil Rights Act o No federal aid of any kind can be used in ways that discriminate against people on grounds of race, gender, religion, or national origin- In 1970s, all states were required to impose a 55 mph speed limit or lose a portion of their highway assistance funds.- In 1984, all states were required to set a minimum drinking age of 21 or have their highway aid cut by 15% Confederal System Libel/Slander- Libel: written defaming statement- Slander: spoken defaming statement 14 th and 15 th Amendment Plessy v. Ferguson- In 1890, the State of Louisiana passed a law that required separate accommodations for blacks and whites on railroads, including separate railway cars. - Concerned, several black and white citizens in New Orleans formed an association dedicated to the repeal of that law. - They persuaded Homer Plessy, who was one-eighth black (an octoroon in the now-antiquated parlance), to test it. In 1892, Plessy purchased a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railway from New Orleans....
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Dr.dolittle during the Spring '08 term at Cedarville.
- Spring '08