The Union in Peril

The Union in Peril - The Union in Peril, 1848-1861 1. Four...

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The Union in Peril, 1848-1861 1. Four main causes of the conflict between the North and the South a. Slavery b. Constitutional disputes c. Economic differences d. Political blunders and extremism Conflicts over status of territories Free- Soil Movement - Free- Soilers sought to keep the West a land of opportunity for whites only so that the white majority would not have to compete with the labor of slaves or free blacks - The Free-Soil party was organized in 1848 - The chief objective was to prevent the extension of slavery, advocate free homesteads (public land grants to small farmers), and internal improvements Southern Position - Favored extending the Missouri Compromise line of 13°30’ westward to the Pacific Ocean and permitting territories north of that line to be non-slave Popular Sovereignty - Instead of Congress determining whether to allow slavery in a new western territory or state, Lewis Cass suggested that the matter be determined by a vote of the people who settled the territory - This is known as Squatter or Popular Sovereignty The Election of 1848 - Democrats nominated Senator Cass - Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor - Free-Soil party nominated Martin Van Buren - Taylor narrowly defeated Cass The Compromise of 1850 - In 1849, Californians drafted a constitution which banned slavery - President Tyler wanted California and New Mexico to be slave-free states - Henry Clay proposes the Compromise o Admit California to the Union as a free state o Divide the remainder of the Mexican Cession into two territories— Utah and New Mexico—and allow the settlers in these territories to decide the slavery issue by majority vote, or popular sovereignty o Give the land in dispute between Texas and the New Mexico territory to the new territories in return for the federal government assuming Texas’ public debt of $10 million o Ban the slave trade in the District of Columbia but permit whites to hold slaves as before o Adopt a new Fugitive slave Law and enforce it rigorously - The three congressional giants o Henry Clay
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o Daniel Webster Argued for the compromise o John C. Calhoun Argued against the compromise - Stephen A. Douglas engineered different coalitions to pass each part of the compromise separately. - President Fillmore readily signed the bills into law - The passage of the Compromise of 1850 bought time for the nation Agitation over slavery Fugitive Slave Law o The passage of the strict Fugitive Slave Law that persuaded many southerners to accept the loss of California o Enforcement and opposition The laws purpose was to track down runaway slaves who had escaped to a northern state, capture them, and return them to
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Dr.dolittle during the Spring '08 term at Cedarville.

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The Union in Peril - The Union in Peril, 1848-1861 1. Four...

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