INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW

INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW - INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW Security...

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INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW Security dilemma- the propensity of armaments undertaken by one state for ostensibly defensive purposes to threaten other states, which arm in reaction, with the result that the arming states’ national security declines as their arms increase. Democratic peace- the liberal theory that lasting peace depends on the deepening of liberal democratic institutions within states and their diffusion throughout the globe, given the “iron law” that democracies do not wage war against each other. Mutually assured destruction (MAD)- a condition of mutual deterrence in which both sides possess the ability to survive a first strike with weapons of mass destruction and launch a devastating retaliatory attack. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)- the negotiations begun in 1969 between the United States and the USSR to freeze offensive weapons at existing levels and promote balanced, verifiable limits on strategic nuclear weapons. Strategic Arms Reduction Theory (START)- the U.S.- Russian series of negotiations that began in 1993 and, with the 1997 START III agreement ratified by Russia in 2000, pledged to cut nuclear arsenals of both sides by 80% of the Cold War peaks, in order to lower the risk of nuclear war by making a successful preemptive strike impossible. Hegemonic stability theory- the argument that a single dominant state is necessary to enforce international cooperation, maintain international rules and agreements, and keep the peace. Alliance- coalitions that form when two or more states combine their military capabilities and promise to coordinate their policies to increase mutual security. Balance of power- the theory that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when military power is distributed to prevent a single hegemon or bloc from controlling the world. Deterrence- a preventive strategy designed to dissuade an adversary from doing what it otherwise might prefer to do, such as initiating a military attack. Deterrence= capability x resolve. Massive retaliation- the Eisenhower administration’s policy doctrine for containing Soviet communism by pledging to respond to any act of aggression with the most destructive capabilities available, including nuclear weapons. Countervalue targeting strategy- the bargaining doctrine that declares the intention to use weapons of mass destruction against an enemy’s most valued non-military resources, such as the civilians and industries located in its cities. Counterforce targeting strategy- targeting strategic nuclear weapons on particular military capabilities of an enemy’s armed forces and arsenals. Nuclear utilization theory (NUT)- a body of strategic thought that claimed deterrent threats would be more credible if nuclear weapons were more usable. Said nuclear weapons could be used in war- “limited nuclear war” possible-
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INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW - INR2001 Test 2 REVIEW Security...

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