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W5-Memory-Notes.pdf - 5A Nature of Memory Memory - is the...

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5A Nature of MemoryMemory - is the ability to take in information, encode it, store it, and recall it at a later time.In Psychology, memory is broken into three stages:Encodingin order to form new memories, information must be changed into a usable form, which occursthrough the process known as encoding. There are 3 ways in which information can be encoded: 1 Visual(picture), 2 Acoustic (sound), 3 Semantic (meaning).Storageis the creation of a permanent record of the encoded information. It is the second memorystage or process in which we maintain information over periods of time. The way we store informationaffects the way we retrieve it. Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory.Information can only be stored for a brief duration in STM (0-30 seconds), but LTM can last a lifetime.Retrievalthis refers to getting information out of the storage. It is described as calling back of storedinformation in response to some cue for use in a process or activity. There are many factors that caninfluence how memories are retrieved such as the type of information being used and the retrieval cuesthat are present.The different types of memory. There are several different models of memory that have been proposed.And the stage model of memory is often used to explain the basic structure and functions of memory.This theory outlines three separate stages of memory: the sensory memory storage, short-term memorystorage, and the long-term memory storage.Sensory memoryis the earliest stage of memory. During this stage, sensory information from theenvironment is stored for a very brief period of time, generally for no longer than a half-second for visualinformation and 2 or 4 seconds for auditory information. It is assumed that there is a subtype of sensorymemory for each of the five major senses (touch, sight, smell, hearing, and taste). However, only three ofthese types have been extensively studied:
-Echoic memoryis the branch of sensory memory used by the auditory system. It is capable of holdinga large amount of auditory information, but only 3-4 seconds. This echoic sound is replayed in the mindfor this brief amount of time immediately after the presentation of the auditory stimulus.-Iconic memorysensory input to the visual system goes into iconic memory. So named because themental representations of visual stimuli are referred to as icons. Iconic memory has a duration of about100ms.-Haptic memoryis a branch of sensory memory used by the sense of touch. Sensory receptors all overthe body detect sensations like pressure, itching, and pain, which are briefly help in haptic memory beforevanishing or being transported to short-term memory. This type of memory seems to be used whenassessing the necessary forces for gripping and interacting with familiar objects. Haptic memory seems todecay after about 2 seconds. Evidence of haptic memory has only recently been identified and not asmuch is known about its characteristics compared to iconic and echoic memory.

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Hermann Ebbinghaus, Memory processes, George Miller

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