Africa Study Guide - Africa Study Guide: ANSWERS I. Early...

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Africa Study Guide: ANSWERS I. Early African History 1. What materialistic forms characterize early African history before 1500? (See Rodney and Bekerie) i. 2. Identify Ancient African Empires with characteristic mode of production (5 of them) i. Ethiopian Empire ii. Congo- Hunting/Gathering iii. Afrasan (NE Africa) (Plow) iv. Western Sudan Empire- Sudanic (Pastoral) v. Khoisan Hunting and Gathering Culture of Kalahari Desert (south) vi. Niger-Congo (Hoe Culture) 3. What are distinct features of agriculture in ancient Africa? i. Primary mode of living- nature of economy 1. Irrigation along the Nile, metal tools, annual flooding of the nile ii. Absence of professional groups like feudalist land owners and capitalist farmers with vested interest in the land 4. Identify earliest mode of exchange in African Societies. Trace this to standard mode. Mention items traded in standard mode. i. Old mode of exchange- Barter ii. Later some items became standard of measure 1. Salt, cloth, iron hoes, cowrie shells, gold, copper 2. Cattle for pastoral value iii. In a few places like North Africa, Ethiopia, and Congo the mode was more sophisticated 5. Identify two ancient African Cultures with emphasis on political forms. State briefly in three sentences the basic characteristics of these cultures as identified by Rodney. i. Yoruba 1. Artistic achievements, good with bronzes, traded materials with Europeans 2. Booming economic activity 3. High level of material culture ii. Dahomey 1. Great socio-political developments- “state” Sparta like 2. Completely dedicated to war 3. Rewarded brave and victorious 6. State three common fallacies by some scholars on African Historiography especially with respect to the transatlantic slavery. i. Low population of Africa – what is the implication? ii. Slave trade and migration of labor- consequences on agriculture 1. Labor was drawn from primary mode of living 2. Hot spots- West Africa from Senegal to Angola Belt, Central Africa iii. Three Fallacies 1. Though slavery was evil, it was economically good for Africa 2. Helped solve problem of starvation- Africa got staple food like
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maize and cassava 3. Exchange of goods gave Africa wealth- kingdoms grew due to trade II. Nationalism and Decolonization 1. Which year was the Berlin Conference that arbitrarily partitioned the continent? i. 1884-1885 2. Mention three main colonial countries in Africa i. Zimbabwe, South Africa, Congo Free State 3. Identify five countries with their dates of independence from colonial rule in specific area i. North- Tunisia 20 March 1956 ii. South- South Africa 31 May 1910 iii. East- Mozambique 25 June 1975 iv. Horn- Djibouti 27 June 1977 v. West- Western Sahara 28 February 1976 4. Using Cabral, describe broadly but briefly the cultural project of colonialism (pay attention to two sides of Cabral’s thesis on culture- immaterial and material) i. Material: material domination is necessary condition of colonialism- it has to permanently do an organized repression of the culture dominated-
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Africa Study Guide - Africa Study Guide: ANSWERS I. Early...

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