Study Guide Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Growth Patterns in a typical 3-year old compared to an 8-year old Brain Development- From head to feet. They have giant heads compared to their bodies, but once they hit middle childhood we see better proportions. (Cephalocaudal Sequence) o Speed of Thought Why does it increase? o Prefrontal cortex – what are its functions? Planning and analyzing. Maturation of the frontal lobes leads to regular sleep, emotional development, less temper tantrums, and emotional regulation. Progression of drawing skills- First it starts as scribbles. Then we see the first representational forms. At age 3 the adult is able to see what the child drew, before this stage the parent may have had to ask what it is that they drew. At 3-4 years of age we see children drawing tadpole people. Then at age 5-6 we see more complex drawings which is the ability to draw flowers, dogs, the sun or a house/a complete picture) What should you do if your child is left-handed? - 90% of people are right handed. The right handed people tend to use just the left hemisphere of their brains and they tend to be more about language. While the right hemisphere tends to be about art and movement. Only 10% of people are left handed. Left handed people use both hemispheres of their brains. There have been studies about left vs. right handed people, but left or right has nothing to do with being better than the other. Whether you are right handed or left handed is jointly influenced by nature and nurture. It could be the position in the uterus or it could have to do with practice or your caregiver forced you to use one hand rather than the other. Toilet Training (when and how should parents train their children)?- Average 23 months (2 years) Most children however aren’t ready until 24-27 months. Boys are usually trained later. As a parent though you should not push your child if your child is afraid. Wait until your child is ready. Stop using diapers and start putting the child in underwear and it may help them. Gross Motor Skills vs. Fine Motor Skills- Gross- move around, run, hanging from monkey bars, walking, jumping, climbing, much more advanced. The balance improves, upper and lower body skills combine into more refined actions and greater speed and endurance happens. The use of large muscles. Fine- write, draw, handwriting, coloring within the lines and the way they hold the marker the right way, fastening buttons. Dressing, eating, drawing and printing are some examples. The use of fine muscles. We see a lot of differences among genders because of the parent’s encouragement. We see that girls tend to develop those fine motor skills better and faster than boys because girls tend to make believe play or have tea parties & Barbie's. While boys play football and tumble around. Boys excel in skills using force and power, while girls excel in skills using balance and agility.