Parties and IG - Political Parties & Interest Groups...

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What is a political party? An organized group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label – a party identification – by which they are known to the electorate What is an interest group? An organized group of people who share some goals and try to influence public policy Differences between IGs and Parties - Parties – aggregate different viewpoints and interests into one broad based platform – must appeal to a number of interests in order to win elections Interest Groups – articulate interests, more specific viewpoints – concerned about attracting support to their issues Three elements of Political Parties 1. Party in the Electorate – voters, party identification (a label) 2. Party in Government – set of leaders who attempt to organize and control the legislative and executive branches of government 3. Party as Organization – recruits and campaigns candidates for office II. Seven Functions of Political Parties A. Recruit Candidates for Political Office – less of a role B. Nominate Candidates – primaries or conventions C. Mobilize Voters – get out the vote drives, voter registration D. Contest Elections – run ads, train candidates E. Form Governments – Congress is organized by party, president’s Cabinet F. Coordinate policy across units of government – president works with members of party, meets with governors of same party G. Provide Accountability - voting III. Why Parties? - Parties help to achieve and maintain the majorities needed to accomplish goals once in office - To mobilize voters – modern mass based party – Martin Van Buren
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IV. American Parties Over Time 1 st Party System – (1788-1824) parties originally form as coalitions within government – electoral component develops as a means to control policy; split develops on national issues (especially the power of the national government) – Federalists – Adams & Hamilton – elite oriented; Republicans – Jefferson & Madison – less elite oriented; demise of the Federalist party – 1824 battle 2 nd Party System – (1828-1854) development of the mass based political party; presidential voting is extended (property requirement dropped; popular election of electors); evolves into a two party system – the Democrats and Whigs where the parties attempt to win voter support – national parties, lack of issue development – slavery emerges as a critical issue 3 rd Party System – (1856-1896) gaps between the North and South had grown compounded by growth of the country (new state debate); Whig Party combusts; the Dems divided leads to a split election, Lincoln wins majority of electoral vote, leads to Republican dominance after war before shifting into a competitive two
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PS 110 taught by Professor Scottj.lasley during the Spring '08 term at Western Kentucky University.

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Parties and IG - Political Parties & Interest Groups...

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