Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - 1 Exam Numero Dos I. Culture-...

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Exam Numero Dos I. Culture - Persuaders need to understand culture in order to identify and relate to their audience. Persuaders also have interests in shaping and transforming culture. Those who can shape a culture possess a lot of power. They can use that power to direct them towards certain products, beliefs, or assumptions. Persuaders often use culture, words, images, etc. as part of their message. They are significant products of culture and what images we choose are cultural decisions to decide what makes sense or is meaningful to an audience. Culture is often used to describe aesthetics. a. High culture - Ballet, sculpture, modern art, etc. Referred to as upper class, highly educated, etc. b. Pop culture - Not limited to the elite, but for the masses. Usually has a commercial purpose. Paul Potts was a cell phone salesman—an instance in which high culture and pop culture clash; he was an average man who sang opera. c. Sub culture - We can belong to regional cultures or subcultures. They can be divided by age, lifestyle, etc. – Nascar vs. Whole foods, etc. d. Definition of culture - “the totality of human products [which includes] knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a human being.” Culture builds a universe of meaning shared by a culture. ‘Ecosystem’ if you will. The essence of culture is the creation and sharing of meanings in a society of people. e. Material culture - “cultural products” or artifacts produced by people in a society f. Nonmaterial culture - beliefs, values, behaviors that sustain a particular people. g. Cultural beliefs - cognitive information or assumptions. Beliefs are what you hold to be true or false. Ex: Everyone should work, each person is responsible for their own well-being, etc. h. Cultural Values -criterion or standards of preference based on cultural beliefs. Values are standards of preferences based on cultural beliefs (the heart/emotional level). Ex: achievement and success, freedom and equality, progress, individualism. i. Cultural Behavior - practice or actions taken based on cultural beliefs and values. Behaviors are practices or actions taken based on cultural beliefs and values. Ex: insistence on choice, pursuit of the impossible dream, acceptance of mistakes, urge to improvise. HOME DEPOT ADVERTISEMENT j. Institutions - Bundles of beliefs, values, and behaviors in a specific area of life. Ex: the institution of marriage. k. CULTURE AND POWER - an important relationship l. Mainstream culture model -believes that there is a mainstream, dominant culture m. Referent class - A very small group of people that set standards. It includes men who are of European descent and protestant; well educated and professional.
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n. Cultural conflict model - Suggests that there is no mainstream culture. Ex: the institution of the family causes lots of cultural conflict. People have differences and conflicts with those outside that community. o.
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Exam 2 Study Guide - 1 Exam Numero Dos I. Culture-...

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